APPENDIX IV Plant Pest Identification & Control: Specific Plant Pests & Control Methods: Large Trees - PDF

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1 APPENDIX IV Plant Pest Identification & Control: For ready reference the following plant pest information is presented in groupings of general plant type (e.g. large trees, shrubs, vines etc.). Also,
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1 APPENDIX IV Plant Pest Identification & Control: For ready reference the following plant pest information is presented in groupings of general plant type (e.g. large trees, shrubs, vines etc.). Also, within each group the plants are listed alphabetically using common names. This order of listing is only to make it easier for information to be referenced; it is important that this sequence is not construed to represent the order or relative significance of plant pest threat. To assist with management of each identified plant pest the following information: (1) succinctly describes each plant species so that it might be readily identified on the ground, (2) gives a brief appreciation of its threat, & (3) describes how to control the plant pest. The list of plant pests and control methods detailed below is followed by a table of plant pests common to natural areas and this table aligns the plant pests with the herbicides which will effectively control them. Specific Plant Pests & Control Methods: Large Trees 1. Aspen & Poplar are tall growing trees that grow rapidly and some species within this group readily throw seed over large distances to become a pest in uncultivated land and along bush margins. Control is achieved by pulling seedlings out of the ground and by felling saplings, but to prevent re-growth the stumps need to be immediately swabbed with herbicide; undiluted Tordon, Grazon or Vigilant Gel is recommended. The larger trees can be felled where they will not cause collateral damage to native vegetation nor create other problems, otherwise they should be killed standing by drilling and poisoning. Control of large trees is most easily achieved by drilling 10mm diameter holes at a slight downward angle to a depth of 50mm beyond the inner bark and at 200mm spacing around the trunk circumference; then filling each hole with 25mls of undiluted glyphosate (e.g. Roundup). Alternatively, the trees can be ring-barked but an effective ring-bark needs to penetrate to the cambium layer around the entire circumference of the trunk and should be not less than 150mm wide to prevent it healing over. With large trees this is a significantly more labour intensive method than drilling and poisoning. 2. Eucalyptus which are also known as Gum trees, grow rapidly in New Zealand conditions. Some species are quite benign and don t reproduce aggressively, but many species of eucalypts readily throw seed resulting in young saplings popping up through the scrub. Like large pines, eucalypts will also eventually topple over and destabilise steep terrain if they are not destroyed. Any trees which can be cut down without causing damage to the native bush, or without creating other problems, need to be promptly stump swabbed with undiluted Tordon or Vigilant gel otherwise they will re-grow. Any existing eucalyptus stumps which are showing signs of re-growth, because they were not poisoned when the tree was previously felled, will need to have a biscuit cut off the stump and the entire freshly exposed cambium layer of the stump then immediately swabbed with poison. Where unacceptable damage would result by felling large trees then those eucalypts should be killed standing in the same fashion as detailed for poplars above. 3. Pines readily flourish in open ground and native forest canopy gaps; consequently, when growing in or near native forest they present an on-going threat to the recovery and stability of the natural forest ecosystem. Pine needles acidify the soil adversely affecting the native forest understorey health within their near environs and thereby creating gaps for other hardy weeds. Further, if pines are not destroyed they will get larger, will destabilise steep ground, falling and tearing away part of the slope. Any seedlings and small trees can either be pulled out or cut down; poisoning the stumps of felled pines is not required as they will not re-grow so long as there are no branches below the cut. Large Pines need to be destroyed without decimating the surrounding native forest or tipping them into the harbour and the easiest way to do this is by poisoning the standing tree, as described at 1 above. 2 4. Taiwan Cherry quickly grows to a large size and spreads profusely by dropping seeds and by bird dispersal. A few plants can quickly become many so early control is beneficial to save work later. This tree has a typical cherry leaf and has copious pink flowers in spring. Young plants can easily be pulled out of the ground. Saplings have soft wood so can be easily cut down, but to prevent re-growth the stumps need to be immediately swabbed with herbicide; undiluted Tordon, Grazon or Vigilant Gel is recommended. Larger trees can be killed standing by scarfing at a downward angle around the entire trunk and immediately swabbing the undiluted herbicide into the cuts. 5. Black Wattle, Bush/Brush Wattle & Sydney Golden Wattle all seed abundantly and spread rapidly; they also tip over readily on steep ground with resultant soil erosion and copious wattle seedlings then germinating on the exposed soil. Any seedlings and small saplings can easily be pulled out of the ground. Larger trees can be drilled & poisoned using glyphosate. Any large trees which are felled should be dealt with in the same manner as described for Eucalyptus in 2 above; except the stumps don t need to be poisoned as the tree will not re-grow. 6. Tasmanian Blackwood is a type of wattle but is not as aggressive as Bush Wattle; however, it can spread by seed and by suckering. It can be destroyed in the same manner as Bush Wattle with the exception that if a Tasmanian Blackwood tree is cut down the stump needs to be immediately swabbed around the cambium layer with undiluted Tordon or glyphosate to prevent regrowth and coppicing. Small Trees: 7. Banana palm is shallow rooting and if it is not controlled it will insidiously spread, displacing other other plant species. This is effectively controlled by felling the palm and spraying the stump with either a metsulfuron or a triclopyr based herbicide to prevent regrowth. 8. Prickly Robinia, Robinia pseudoacacia is a small to medium-sized sparsely wooded, deciduous tree with an open form. It has long thorns on the branch and leaf stems. This plant pest readily spreads in scrubby areas and open ground by throwing seed and by root suckering. It is best controlled by cutting the trees down and immediately swabbing the cut stump with undiluted glyphosate (e.g. Roundup) or a triclopyr based herbicide (e.g. Tordon). Follow up inspections and treatment of any suckering from the roots or tree base may be required by cutting the new growth and swabbing the cuts. Trees which are too large or difficult to cut, because of location or potential damage to native bush, can be controlled by the drilling and poisoning technique using triclopyr based herbicide (e.g. Tordon); such action will also require follow-up and treatment of any suckering. 9. Woolly Nightshade is a shrubby tree with large grey-green woolly leaves, purple flowers and yellow berries. The entire plant smells of turpentine and can be an irritant. Plants which are too big to be pulled or dug out must be cut and immediately stump swabbed with undiluted triclopyr based herbicide (e.g. Tordon), or glyphosate (e.g. Roundup) herbicide or Vigilant Gel around the outer cambium layer of the stump. Alternatively, Velpar granules can be sprinkled on the cut stump. If the stumps are not poisoned Woolly Nightshade will re-grow. Trees which are too large to cut down without damaging surrounding native vegetation can be poisoned standing either by scarf cutting at a downward angle around the entire trunk and immediately swabbing undiluted Tordon herbicide into the cuts, or by the drilling and poisoning technique - described at 1 above - but using triclopyr based herbicide (e.g. Tordon). Bushes & Shrubs 10. Cotoneaster is an evergreen shrub or small tree with smooth stems and small, dull, oval leaves. It has copious small red berries throughout summer which are spread by birds. This is a hardy weed of bush margins or waste areas. Near easily accessible sites Cotoneaster can simply be sprayed with a triclopyr based herbicide (e.g. Tordon) or an herbicide with metsulfuron as the active ingredient (e.g. Escort). Glyphosate (e.g. Roundup) may also be used as a spray but may not prove as effective; in any event a penetrant such as Pulse is also necessary for an effective kill. Inside the bush where spraying may not be practicable any small Cotoneaster plants can be hand pulled or dug up. Larger plants can be cut off near the ground and immediately basal swabbed with triclopyr based herbicide (e.g. Tordon) or Vigilant Gel. Plants larger than about 2m high are best managed either by scarf cutting at a downward angle around the entire trunk and immediately 3 swabbing the herbicide into the cuts, or by using the drill & poison method described in 1 above, so that the plants die standing and allow native growth to come through. Follow up will be required over the following few years to remove any young plants that grow from seed already in the ground. 11. Hydrangea will grow from prunings and tubers that have been discarded from domestic gardens into natural areas. This plant will thrive in both sun and heavy shade and is tolerant of both wet and dry conditions, meaning that it will grow both on forest margins and inside areas of bush that allow some light penetration. Hydrangea is destroyed by digging any plants and all the tubers out of the ground with a spade and removing them. Suggested chemical methods include spraying the foliage with metsulfuron (e.g. Escort) or triclopyr (e.g. Tordon), or cutting the plant stems close to ground and immediately swabbing the stem bases with Vigilant gel or with undiluted Tordon. 12. Japanese Aralia (Fatsia japonica) is sometimes also called Fruit Salad Plant. It is a fast growing evergreen that has a rounded form up to 2.5m high and wide. It produces large, dark green, glossy, palmate leaves on petioles that are frequently 500mm long. Clumped bark berries are also produced on long stems. Aralia is often gown as a garden plant and readily takes root when discarded as green-waste. It grows both in full sun and in heavy shade and spreads by selfsown seed and by suckering, occupying sites otherwise suited to native species. Information regarding control of Aralia is not readily available, but cutting the stems near ground level and immediately swabbing the stumps with glyphosate or triclopyr is likely to produce the most costeffective results. Lilies & Tuberous Plants: 13. Agapanthus is an extremely hardy herbaceous perennial with dark, linear, evergreen leaves up to 60cm long and blue-purple composite flower-heads produced on erect stalks. Agapanthus readily takes root from garden waste dumping and spreads in dense clumps/mats to the exclusion of all other plants, reproducing both vegetatively and from seeds which develop on the stalks after flowering. It grows in open sun and semi-shade. Agapanthus is hard to kill and unless it is manually dug out with the bulbs and rhizomes it requires at least 2-3 follow-up treatments with herbicide. Begin eradication at the top of banks or streams & work down. Remove flowerheads in early summer to stop seed dispersal. Don t replant until after 2-3 treatments. Attempt to clear local gardens, especially on the coast. When using herbicide to control Agapanthus slash the leaves close to ground and swab the fresh stumps with Vigilant gel or with triclopyr (e.g. Tordon) or with metsulfuron (e.g. Escort). Spraying the green vegetation with triclopyr and penetrant will have limited success. 14. Arum Lily is a tuberous herb with large leathery leaves shaped like an arrow head, and with large white trumpet-shaped flowers. Left uncontrolled this plant smothers the ground layer preventing regeneration of natural flora. It can be controlled by spraying the foliage, or by slashing the stems and spraying the cut stumps, with metsulfuron (e.g. Escort) and penetrant or with glyphosate (e.g. Roundup) and penetrant. 15. Chilean Rhubarb (Gunnera tinctoria), also known as Gunnera, can be controlled in the same manner as Arum Lily. 16. Canna Lily is an erect, leafy ornamental garden herb which grows up to about 1.5m high. It has fleshy green stems with large green (sometimes purple tinged) oblong leaves and has thick underground rhizomes. This perennial herb produces one or two flowers on the end of each stem which may be red, yellow or orange. Canna Lily gets into natural areas by green-waste dumping and by spreading from margins where it has been planted. Seeds are spread by gravity and water, and pieces of the underground rhizomes also form new plants. Untended it forms tall, dense, longlived stands that are tolerant of a range of conditions including salt, wind, grazing or other damage, and damp to moderately dry sites. Left uncontrolled Cannas will replace all other ground cover plants, preventing natural regeneration and often leading to the invasion of weedy vines. Control is achieved by any of the following methods: 1. Dig out isolated plants with the rhizomatous roots, removing the roots and any black seeds from the site to dry and burn or dispose of at a refuse transfer station. 2. Cut the stems above ground level and swab the cut stems with a mixture of metsulfuron and glyphosate with a penetrant/wetting agent (e.g. Pulse) added. Alternatively, Vigilant gel can be swabbed onto the cut stems. The slash can be left but do not leave the black seeds behind or they will germinate with ground contact. 3. Over-spray by knapsack in spring or summer with metsulfuron plus glyphosate with a wetting agent, mixed to label specifications. 4 5 Note: Any fragments remaining in the soil will re-sprout so follow-up control by digging or spraying may be required. 17. Elephant Ear is a tuberous herb with large leathery leaves of a size and shape similar to an elephant s ear. Left uncontrolled this plant will steadily spread in both sunny and shady sites preventing regeneration of natural flora. Black Taro is a variant of Elephant Ear that has slightly smaller leaves which are more arrow shaped and dark purple in colour with black stems. Control is by spraying the foliage, or by slashing the stems and spraying the cut stumps, with metsulfuron (e.g. Escort) and penetrant or else with glyphosate (e.g. Roundup) and penetrant. Alternatively, plants can be slashed and if no herbicide is used all the tubers must be dug up, then dried and burned; otherwise the tubers will grow again if they come into ground contact. 18. Wild Ginger is best killed by slashing away the foliage then dribbling metsulfuron (e.g. Escort) herbicide over the exposed root corms (follow the product label instructions for mixing). Alternatively, the plant can be dug up but it is important to get all of the roots and root corms. Small plants that can be pulled out or dug up with all of the root mass can be hung in the fork of a tree to die out of ground contact; otherwise, if dug out, the roots and root corms should be dried in the sun and then burned or else they should be disposed of at a landfill. Grass & Herbaceous Plants: 19. Bamboo spreads both by underground rhizomes up to 400mm deep and by above-ground stoloniferous runners to create a dense thicket of Bamboo to the exclusion of all else. Control is achieved by two methods: i. Cut down the canes close to ground and spray the regrowth with a mix of 200ml Amitrole plus 20ml penetrant per 10lts of water before the shoots reach 600mm. Follow-up by spraying the shoots before they re-grow to 600mm high until regrowth ceases (usually 4-6 treatments); or, cut stray emergent shoots at ground level and inject 10ml undiluted Amitrole into each stem. Amongst desirable plants spray the cut shoots with 300ml haloxyfop based herbicide (e.g. Gallant NF) and a wetting agent per 10lts water, instead of using Amitrole. ii. Alternatively, inject hexazinone based herbicide (e.g. Velpar 20G) 10cm into soil at 300mm spacing on the uphill side of infestations and at 1m spacing inside infestations during dry periods. Do not apply in wet conditions or on the downhill side of Bamboo infestation as hexazinone is residual in soil and will leach to desirable downhill plants. 20. Inkweed & Impatiens are both weeds of open ground but will not thrive under dense forest canopy; nonetheless, they compete with native colonisers on bush margins. Inkweed and Impatiens are both easily controlled by hand-pulling to remove them by the roots when they are small; larger plants can be cut and the stumps swabbed/sprayed with glyphosate. 21. Pampas is a South American tall grass species that it often mistaken for the native Toetoe; however, it is a very aggressive coloniser that spreads by copious wind-borne seeds and needs to be sprayed, preferably with Gallant NF for a reliable and effective kill. If glyphosate-based herbicide is used it will not have a total effect and use of that alternative will likely require follow-up treatment, so preference is given to Gallant NF. In any case a penetrant such as Pulse is also necessary for an effective kill. Alternatively small Pampas plants can be dug out before they become a bigger problem. Succulents 22. Succulents include an array of fleshy and often spiky-leafed exotic, arid species such as Cactus, Aloes & Yucca etc. They tend to root readily from dumped garden waste and usually spread gradually by division or suckering. Generally, the most effective control method is digging out the plants with the roots or tubers and removing them from the area. Vines & Scramblers 23. Bougainvillea This is generally a deciduous yet vigorous climber with arching thorn-bearing canes and with pink, red or purple flower bracts that have cream centres. This is a common garden ornamental plant but without maintenance Bougainvillea can climb up to around 5m high smothering other plants. 6 Control is achieved by following the canes back to the main stem and cutting it at the base then immediately swabbing the stump with glyphosate. 7 24. Climbing Asparagus is a fine leafed, dense smothering vine has small dark berries and has minute hooks on the vine stems. It has been commonly grown in New Zealand as an indoor potplant and has escaped into the wild by dumping of green-waste then subsequent spread and bird dispersal. It thrives in a wide range of light and moisture conditions and spreads from seed dispersal, and by climbing over other vegetation. Small infestations can be controlled by cutting the plants back and carefully digging out all the roots and the tubers; then the waste must be dried and burnt or disposed at a proper landfill but not in a green-waste collection. Large infestations are best controlled in spring or summer by cutting the vines about half a metre above ground and spraying the foliage remaining on the stump with glyphosate (e.g. Roundup) with a wetting agent such as Pulse penetrant added. Seedlings will need to be controlled until the tubers and soil seedbank are exhausted. 25. Cape Ivy is more of a scrambling shrub than a true climber. It has thick fleshy leaves with and angular shape and thick stems and flowers abundantly in winter. It grows rapidly and densely covering native shrubs up to two metres tall. Control is achieved by spraying with triclopyr and penetrant, or where growth covers native vegetation then slash to clear the ivy from the native plants and spray re-growth within three months. 26. Japanese Honeysuckle is a rambling vine with large yellow/white flowering massing heads. It is often seen engulfing road boundary fences and hedges, but when it establishes within native bush the vines climb up into the tree canopy then the foliage smothers the trees. Small areas of Japanese Honeysuckle that are not growing over native canopy can be blanket sprayed with glyphosate (e.g. Roundup) or triclopyr (e.g. Tordon) h
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