Exampro GCSE Physics. P1 Energy and Efficiency Self Study Questions Higher tier. Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 77. Marks: PDF

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Exampro GCSE Physics P Energy and Efficiency Self Study Questions Higher tier Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 77 Marks: 77 Comments: Page of 30 Q. Table shows information about different light bulbs.
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Exampro GCSE Physics P Energy and Efficiency Self Study Questions Higher tier Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 77 Marks: 77 Comments: Page of 30 Q. Table shows information about different light bulbs. The bulbs all have the same brightness. Table Type of bulb Input power in watts Efficiency Halogen Compact fluorescent (CFL) LED (a) (i) Calculate the useful power output of the CFL bulb. Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet. Useful power output =... watts Use your answer to part (i) to calculate the waste energy produced each second by a CFL bulb. Waste energy per second =... joules () Page 2 of 30 (b) (i) A growth cabinet is used to investigate the effect of light on the rate of growth of plants. The figure below shows a growth cabinet. In the cabinet the factors that affect growth can be controlled. A cooler unit is used to keep the temperature in the cabinet constant. The cooler unit is programmed to operate when the temperature rises above 20 C. The growth cabinet is lit using 50 halogen bulbs. Changing from using halogen bulbs to LED bulbs would reduce the cost of running the growth cabinet. Explain why. (4) A scientist measured the rate of growth of plants for different intensities of light. What type of graph should be drawn to present the results?... Give a reason for your answer. () Page 3 of 30 (c) Table 2 gives further information about both a halogen bulb and a LED bulb. Table 2 Type of bulb Cost to buy Lifetime in hours Operating cost over the lifetime of one bulb Halogen LED A householder needs to replace a broken halogen light bulb. Compare the cost efficiency of buying and using halogen bulbs rather than a LED bulb over a time span of hours of use. Your comparison must include calculations (4) (Total 2 marks) Q2. (a) In the UK, over 70% of the electricity is generated in power stations that burn fossil fuels. (i) Explain one effect that burning fossil fuels has on the environment. Give one way the effect on the environment described in part (a)(i) could be reduced. Assume the amount of fossil fuels burnt stays the same. () Page 4 of 30 (b) Electricity can also be generated in a pumped storage hydroelectric power station. An advantage of pumped storage hydroelectric power stations is the short start-up time they have. (i) What is the importance of the short start-up time? () Give one other advantage of a pumped storage hydroelectric power station. () (c) Read the extract below from a newspaper article. (i) In the UK, the proportion of electricity generated using wind turbines is due to increase a lot. Some opponents of wind turbines think this increase will cause big fluctuations in the electricity supply. Suggest one reason why this may be true. () Between 2002 and 2008 the amount of electricity used for lighting in homes in the UK decreased. Suggest one reason why. () (Total 7 marks) Page 5 of 30 ## (a) The table gives information about some ways of reducing the energy consumption in a house. Method of reducing energy consumption Installation cost in Annual saving on energy bills in Fit a new hot water boiler Fit a solar water heater Fit underfloor heating Fit thermostatic radiator valves Which way of reducing energy consumption is most cost effective over a 0-year period? To obtain full marks you must support your answer with calculations (3) (b) Explain why using an energy-efficient light bulb instead of an ordinary light bulb reduces the amount of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere (Total 5 marks) Page 6 of 30 Q4. The picture shows a food processor, which is used to grate, shred, liquidise and mix food. The table gives some information about the food processor. Energy input Electrical Useful energy output Kinetic Power rating 200 watts Efficiency 0.8 (a) The food processor is used for a total of 30 minutes a day. Calculate the cost of the energy wasted by the food processor each day. Electricity costs 5 p per kilowatt-hour. Write down the equations you use, and then show clearly how you work out your answer Cost of waste energy =... p (4) (b) Explain what happens to the waste energy (Total 6 marks) Page 7 of 30 Q5. (a) The diagram shows how much heat is lost each second from different parts of an uninsulated house. (i) Each year, the house costs 760 to heat. How much money is being wasted because of heat lost through the roof? Show clearly how you work out your answer Insulating the loft would cut the heat lost through the roof by 50 %. The loft insulation has a payback time of years. How much did the loft insulation cost to buy?... Cost of loft insulation =... () (b) What happens to the wasted energy? () (Total 4 marks) Page 8 of 30 Q6. (a) Solar energy is a renewable energy source used to generate electricity. (i) What is meant by an energy source being renewable? () Name two other renewable energy sources used to generate electricity. 2 () Page 9 of 30 (b) A householder uses panels of solar cells to generate electricity for his home. The solar cells are tilted to receive the maximum energy input from the Sun. The data in the table gives the average energy input each second (in J/s), to a m 2 area of solar cells for different angles of tilt and different months of the year. Month Angle of tilt February April June August October December (i) Use the data in the table to describe how the average energy input to the solar cells depends on the angle of tilt. Page 0 of 30 The total area of the solar cell panels used by the householder is 5 m 2. The efficiency of the solar cells is 0.8. Use the equation in the box to calculate the average maximum electrical energy available from the solar cell panels each second in June. Show clearly how you work out your answer. Maximum energy =... joules/second (3) (c) The diagram shows part of the National Grid. (i) Even though the householder uses solar cells to generate electricity for his home, the home stays connected to the National Grid. Give one reason why the householder should stay connected to the National Grid. () The step-up transformer increases the efficiency of the National Grid. Explain how. (Total 0 marks) Page of 30 Q7. The farmers in a village in India use solar powered water pumps to irrigate the fields. On average, a one square metre panel of solar cells receives 5 kwh of energy from the Sun each day. The solar cells have an efficiency of 0.5 (a) (i) Use the following equation to calculate the electrical energy available from a one square metre panel of solar cells. Show clearly how you work out your answer. Electrical energy =... kwh On average, each solar water pump uses.5 kwh of energy each day. Calculate the area of solar cells required by one solar water pump. Area =... square metres () (b) Give one reason why the area of solar cells needed will probably be greater than the answer to part (a) () (Total 4 marks) Page 2 of 30 Q8. The table gives data about two types of low energy bulb. Type of bulb Power input in watts Efficiency Lifetime in hours Cost of one bulb Compact Fluorescent Lamp (CFL) Light Emitting Diode (LED) 8 20% (a) Both types of bulb produce the same useful power output. (i) Calculate the useful power output of the CFL. Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet. Show clearly how you work out your answer Useful power output =... W Calculate the efficiency of the LED bulb. Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet. Show clearly how you work out your answer Efficiency =... () (b) Sketch and label a Sankey diagram for the CFL. Page 3 of 30 (c) LED bulbs are expensive. This is because of the large number of individual electronic LED chips needed to produce sufficient light from each bulb. (i) Use the data in the table to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of an LED bulb compared to a CFL Scientists are developing brighter and more efficient LED chips than those currently used in LED bulbs. Suggest one benefit of developing brighter and more efficient LED chips () (Total 8 marks) Q9. A homeowner had a new gas boiler installed. (a) The following information is an extract from the information booklet supplied with the boiler. Fuel Natural Gas Water temperature 60 C Energy supplied to gas boiler 8.0 kj/s (8.0 kw) Efficiency 0.95 (i) Use the equation in the box to calculate the energy transferred each second by the gas boiler to the water inside the boiler. Show clearly how you work out your answer. Energy transferred by the gas boiler each second =... kj Page 4 of 30 The energy value of the gas used in a home is measured in kilowatt-hours (kwh). The homeowner has a pre-payment meter and pays 30 into his account. With a pre-payment meter, gas costs 5p per kilowatt-hour. Use the equations in the box to calculate the total number of hours that the gas boiler would operate for 30. energy transferred = power time total cost = number of kilowatt-hours cost per kilowatt-hour Show clearly how you work out your answer. Number of hours =... (b) Although the gas boiler is very efficient, some energy is wasted. Explain what happens to the waste energy (Total 6 marks) Page 5 of 30 Q0. The diagram shows a small-scale, micro-hydroelectricity generator which uses the energy of falling river water to generate electricity. The water causes a device, called an Archimedean screw, to rotate. The Archimedean screw is linked to the generator by a gearbox. (a) Each second, the micro-hydroelectricity generator transforms joules of gravitational potential energy into joules of electrical energy. (i) Fill in the missing word to complete the energy transformation diagram. Gravitational potential energy of the falling water... energy of the Archimedean screw Electrical energy generated () Use the equation in the box to calculate the efficiency of the micro-hydroelectricity generator. Show clearly how you work out your answer. Efficiency =... (b) The power output from a conventional large-scale hydroelectric power station is times more than the power output from a micro-hydroelectric system. Give one disadvantage of a conventional large-scale hydroelectric power station compared to the micro-hydroelectric system () Page 6 of 30 (c) The electricity generated by a micro-hydroelectric system is transferred via a transformer directly to local homes. The electricity generated by a conventional large-scale hydroelectric power station is transferred to the National Grid, which distributes the electricity to homes anywhere in the country. (i) What is the National Grid? () Explain why transferring the electricity directly to local homes is more efficient than using the National Grid to distribute the electricity. (Total 7 marks) Page 7 of 30 Q. (a) The diagram shows a solar powered device being used to recharge a mobile phone. On average, the solar cells produce 0.6 joules of electrical energy each second. The solar cells have an efficiency of 0.5. (i) Use the following equation to calculate the average energy input each second to the device. Show clearly how you work out your answer. Average energy input each second =... J/s Draw a labelled Sankey diagram for the solar cells. The diagram does not need to be drawn to scale. () Page 8 of 30 (iii) Energy from the Sun is stored by a rechargeable battery inside the device. Suggest one factor that would affect the time it takes to fully charge the battery. Give a reason for your answer. (b) Scientists have developed a new type of solar cell with an efficiency of over 40 %. The efficiency of the solar cell was confirmed independently by other scientists. Suggest why it was important to confirm the efficiency independently () (c) The electricity used in homes in the UK is normally generated in a fossil fuel power station. Outline some of the advantages of using solar cells to generate this electricity (Total 8 marks) Page 9 of 30 M. (a) (i) 5.88 (watts) an answer of 5.9 scores 2 marks allow mark for correct substitution ie 0.42 = allow mark for an answer of or allow 4 their (a)(i) correctly calculated (b) (i) input power / energy would be (much) less (reducing cost of running) accept the converse electricity is insufficient (also) produce less waste energy / power accept heat for waste energy (as the waste energy / power) increases temperature of the cabinet so cooler on for less time line graph need to get both parts correct accept scattergram or scatter graph both variables are continuous allow the data is continuous (c) number of bulbs used-halogen=24 (LED=) total cost of LED = = accept a comparison of buying costs of halogen 36 and LED 30 total cost of halogen= 24 x x 6.00 = 420 or buying cost of halogen is 36 and operating cost is 384 accept a comparison of operating costs of halogen 384 and LED allow for 3 marks the difference in total cost is if the number 24 has not been credited Page 20 of 30 statement based on correct calculations that overall LED is cheaper must be both buying and operating costs an alternative way of answering is in terms of cost per hour: buying cost per hour for LED = p/ buying cost per hour for halogen = = 0.075p/ a calculation of both buying costs scores mark operating cost per hour for LED = = 0.4p/ operating cost per hour for halogen= = 0.8p/ a calculation of both operating costs scores mark all calculations show a correct unit all units correct scores mark statement based on correct calculations of both buying and operating costs, that overall LED is cheaper correct statement scores mark [2] M2. (a) (i) produces carbon dioxide / nitrogen oxides accept greenhouse gases ignore pollutant gases that (may) contribute to global warming accept causes global warming damages ozone layer negates this mark accept alternative answers in terms of: sulfur dioxide / nitrogen oxides causing acid rain carbon capture / storage answer must relate to part (a)(i) collecting carbon dioxide is insufficient or plant more trees or remove sulfur (before burning fuel) (b) (i) (power station can be used) to meet surges in demand accept starts generating in a short time can be switched on quickly is insufficient Page 2 of 30 can store energy for later use accept renewable (energy resource) accept does not produce CO 2 / SO 2 / pollutant gases (c) (i) turbines do not generate at a constant rate accept wind (speed) fluctuates accept wind is (an) unreliable (energy source) any one from: energy efficient lighting (developed / used) use less lighting is insufficient increased energy cost (so people more likely to turn off) accept electricity for energy more people becoming environmentally aware [7] M3. (a) four calculations correctly shown = = = = 25 accept four final answers only or obvious rejection of solar water heater and underfloor heating, with other two calculations completed any complete calculation correctly shown or showing each saving 0 of all four calculations = mark answers in terms of savings as a percentage of installation cost may score savings mark only hot water boiler correct answers only 2 (b) less electricity / energy to be generated / needed from power stations accept less demand reduction in (fossil) fuels being burnt accept correctly named fuel accept answer in terms of: fewer light bulbs required because they last longer ( mark) less energy used / fuels burnt in production / transport etc. ( mark) ignore reference to CO 2 or global warming ignore reference to conservation of energy [5] Page 22 of 30 M4. (a).8 (p) these 4 marks can be broken down as follows: mark for correct transformation and substitution into efficiency equation ie useful power PLUS mark for useful power = 960 W / 0.96 kw PLUS mark for waste energy transferred = or waste energy transferred = 0.2 (kwh) PLUS mark for cost = where a mathematical error has been made full credit should be given for subsequent correct method 4 (b) the waste energy is transferred as heat and sound to the surroundings where it spreads out / is shared by surrounding particles accept air for surroundings [6] M5. (a) (i) 90 nb mention idea of cost per J in will come to an approx figure full credit given allow mark for showing that the energy loss through the roof is ¼ of the total energy loss ie 50 / allow ecf 50 % of their (a)(i).5 ie their (a)(i) 0.75 (b) transferred to surroundings / atmosphere or becomes spread out [4] Page 23 of 30 M6. (a) (i) replaced faster than it is used accept replaced as quick as it is used accept it will never run out do not accept can be used again any two from: two sources required for the mark wind waves tides fall of water do not accept water / oceans accept hydroelectric biofuel accept a named biofuel eg wood geothermal (b) (i) any two from: increases from 20 to 30 reaches maximum value at 30 then decreases from 30 same pattern for each month accept peaks at 30 for both marks accept goes up then down for mark ignore it s always the lowest at an answer of 29.6 gains 2 marks allow mark for using 720 value only from table allow 2 marks for answers 639, 62, 576, 68(.75) allow mark for answers 27.8, 22.4, 5.2, (c) (i) (sometimes) electricity demand may be greater than supply (of electricity from the system) accept cloudy weather, night time affects supply or can sell (excess) electricity (to the National Grid) decreases the current accept increases the voltage Page 24 of 30 reducing energy loss (along cables) accept less heat / thermal energy lost / produced [0] M7. (a) (i) 0.75 allow mark for correct transformation and substitution ie 0.5 = accept.5 their (a)(i) correctly calculated (b) any one from: seasonal changes accept specific changes in conditions eg shorter hours of daylight in winter cloud cover accept idea of change must be stated or unambiguously implied eg demand for water will not (always) match supply of solar energy do not accept figures are average on its own do not accept solar panels are in the shade [4] M8. (a) (i).6 (W) allow mark for correct substitution ie 2 32 (%) / 0.32 or their (a)(i) 5 correctly calculated ignore any units (b) two output arrows one arrow should be wider judged by eye Page 25 of 30 narrower arrow labelled light or useful (energy / output / power) only scores if first mark awarded and wider arrow labelled waste (energy / output / power) accept heat ignore numerical values (c) (i) any two from: comparison over same period of time of relative numbers of bulbs required eg over hours 5 CFL s required to LED accept an LED lasts 5 times longer link number of bulbs to cost eg 5 CFL s cheaper than LED an answer in terms of over a period of hours CFLs cost 5.50 (to buy), LED costs (to buy) so CFLs are cheaper scores both marks an answer in terms of the cost per hour (of lifetime) being cheaper for CFL scores mark if then correctly calculated scores both marks over the same period of time LEDs cost less to operate (than CFLs) 2 any one from: price of LED bulbs will drop do not accept they become cheaper less electricity needs to be generated accept we will use less electricity less CO 2 produced fewer chips needed (for each LED bulb) fewer bulbs required (for same brightness / light) less energy wasted do not accept electricity for energy [8] M9. (a) (i) 7.6 allow mark for correct substitution and / or transformation ie Page 26 of 30 25 (hours) allow mark for obtaining number of kwh = 200 an answer of 26(.3) gains both marks 2 (b) any two from transferred to the surroundings / air / atmosphere becomes spread out shared between (many) molecules (wasted as) heat / sound 2 [6] M0. (a) (i) kinetic accept KE do not accept movement 0.75 allow mark for correct substitution ie or 75 % an answer 0.75 % or 0.75 with a unit gains mark only an answer 75 with or without a unit gains mark only 2 (b) any one from: large areas of land are flooded uses large areas of land / takes up large areas of land is insufficient people's homes may be destroyed habitat (of animals and plants) lost / damaged construct is neutral very noisy is neutral (c) (i) system of cables and transformers both required for the mark accept power lines / wires for cables ignore reference
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