Exampro GCSE Physics. P1 Foundation - Generating Electricity Self Study Questions. Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 78. Marks: PDF

Please download to get full document.

View again

of 39
All materials on our website are shared by users. If you have any questions about copyright issues, please report us to resolve them. We are always happy to assist you.
Information Report
Category:

Paintings & Photography

Published:

Views: 5 | Pages: 39

Extension: PDF | Download: 0

Share
Related documents
Description
Exampro GCSE Physics P Foundation - Generating Electricity Self Study Questions Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 78 Marks: 78 Comments: Page of 39 Q. The bar chart shows the different energy sources used
Transcript
Exampro GCSE Physics P Foundation - Generating Electricity Self Study Questions Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 78 Marks: 78 Comments: Page of 39 Q. The bar chart shows the different energy sources used to generate the UK s electricity in (a) (i) The wind is a renewable energy source. Name one more renewable energy source used to generate electricity.... () (ii) Complete the following sentence by drawing a ring around the correct line in the box. decrease Using less fossil fuels to generate electricity will not change the increase amount of carbon dioxide emitted into the atmosphere. () Page 2 of 39 (b) The graph shows how the demand for electricity in the UK varied over one day in the winter. (i) Describe how the demand for electricity varied between 4.00 am and 0.00 am (2) (ii) Which type of power station has the fastest start-up time? Draw a ring around your answer. coal natural gas nuclear oil () (Total 5 marks) Page 3 of 39 Q2. A householder was out shopping when her electricity meter reading should have been taken. The electricity company estimated the reading and sent the following bill. Unfortunately, the bill was damaged in the post. (a) Use the equation in the box to calculate the cost of the electricity used between 2 June and 3 September. total cost = number of kilowatt-hours cost per kilowatt-hour Show clearly how you work out your answer Total cost =... (2) (b) The estimated reading shown on the bill was not very accurate. The correct reading was How many kilowatt-hours of electricity had the householder actually used between 2 June and 3 September? (2) (Total 4 marks) Page 4 of 39 Q3. The diagram shows the National Grid system. (a) The National Grid includes step-up transformers. Explain why. (2) (b) In this question you will be assessed on using good English, organising information clearly and using specialist terms where appropriate. Over the next 0 years, more than 300 kilometres of new high voltage transmission cables are to be added to the National Grid. Most of the new cables will be suspended from pylons and run overhead while the rest will be buried underground. Page 5 of 39 Outline the advantages and disadvantages of both overhead transmission cables and underground transmission cables. (6) Page 6 of 39 (c) When an electric current flows through a transmission cable, a magnetic field is produced. The graph shows how the strength of the magnetic field varies with distance from both overhead and underground transmission cables that carry the same current. What conclusions may be drawn from this graph? (2) Page 7 of 39 (d) Some people think that, because of the magnetic fields, living close to transmission cables is dangerous to health. Laboratory studies on mice and rats exposed to magnetic fields for two or more years found that the magnetic fields had no effect on the animals health. Draw a ring around the correct answer in the box to complete the sentence. economic Using animals in scientific research raises environmental issues. ethical () (Total marks) Q4. Iceland is a country that generates most of its electricity using geothermal power stations and hydroelectric power stations. (a) (i) Complete the following sentences to describe how some geothermal power stations work. In regions where volcanoes are active, the ground is hot. Cold... is pumped down into the ground and is... by hot rocks. It returns to the surface as steam. The steam is used to turn a turbine. The turbine drives a... to produce electricity. (3) (ii) Which one of the following statements about geothermal power stations is true? Tick ( ) one box. Geothermal power stations use fossil fuels. Geothermal power stations produce carbon dioxide. Geothermal power stations provide a reliable source of electricity. () Page 8 of 39 (b) What is needed for a hydroelectric power station to be able to generate electricity? Tick ( ) one box. Falling water A long coastline Lots of sunny days () (Total 5 marks) Q5. (a) Geothermal energy and the energy of falling water are two resources used to generate electricity. (i) What is geothermal energy? () (ii) Hydroelectric systems generate electricity using the energy of falling water. A pumped storage hydroelectric system can also be used as a way of storing energy for future use. Explain how (2) Page 9 of 39 (b) In this question you will be assessed on using good English, organising information clearly and using specialist terms where appropriate. Read the following extract from a newspaper. Page 0 of 39 Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the plan to build thousands of offshore wind turbines around Britain and the suggested electricity power link between Britain and Iceland. (6) (Total 9 marks) Page of 39 Q6. (a) A student investigated how the number of blades on a wind turbine affects the output voltage of the turbine. The student used the apparatus shown in the diagram. The fan was used to turn the wind turbine. (i) The fan was always the same distance from the wind turbine. Why? () (ii) After switching the fan on, the student waited 20 seconds before taking the voltmeter reading. Suggest why () Page 2 of 39 (iii) The student changed the number of blades on the wind turbine. The student s results are shown in the scatter graph. Number of blades What conclusion can be made from the results in the scatter graph? (2) Page 3 of 39 (b) The amount of electricity generated using wind turbines is increasing. Which graph, A, B or C, is most likely to show the electrical power output from a wind turbine over one day? Time Time Time Write the correct answer, A, B or C, in the box. Give a reason for your answer (2) (Total 6 marks) Q7. A farmer has installed a biogas electricity generator on his farm. This device generates electricity by burning the methane gas produced from rotting animal waste. Methane is a greenhouse gas. When methane burns, carbon dioxide and water are produced. The animal waste rots in an anaerobic digester. The digester and the generator are kept inside a farm building and cannot be seen from the outside. (a) The animal waste used in the anaerobic digester is a renewable energy source. What is meant by an energy source being renewable? () (b) Suggest one reason why farmers have been encouraged to install their own biogas generators. () Page 4 of 39 (c) The farmer s monthly electricity bill using the mains electricity supply was 300. The biogas generator cost the farmer to buy and install. Assuming the biogas generator provides all of the farmer s electricity, what is the pay-back time for the generator? Pay-back time =... () (d) It would have been cheaper for the farmer to have bought and installed a small wind turbine. Give two advantages of using the biogas generator rather than a wind turbine, to generate the electricity used on the farm (2) (Total 5 marks) Page 5 of 39 Q8. The picture shows a temporary road traffic information board. The batteries power the LEDs used in the information board. The solar cells keep the batteries charged. (a) Use words from the box to complete each of the following sentences. chemical electrical light sound The solar cells transfer light energy to... energy. The batteries transfer... energy to electrical energy. The LEDs transfer electrical energy to... energy. (3) (b) When the total energy input to the solar cells is 200 joules, the useful energy output from the solar cells to the batteries is 50 joules. Calculate the efficiency of the solar cells. Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet. Efficiency =... (2) Page 6 of 39 (c) Which one of the following statements gives the reason for using solar cells to charge the batteries? Tick ( ) one box. Solar cells will charge the batteries day and night. The information board can be used anywhere it is needed. A small number of solar cells produce a lot of electricity. () (Total 6 marks) Page 7 of 39 Q9. (a) The graph shows how the demand for electricity in the UK changes during one 24-hour period. Time of day The table gives the start-up times for two types of power station. Type of power station Gas Nuclear Start-up time A few minutes Several days How would these two types of power station be used to meet the demand for electricity during this 24-hour period? (3) Page 8 of 39 (b) In this question you will be assessed on using good English, organising information clearly and using specialist terms where appropriate. A farmer plans to generate all the electricity needed on her farm, using either a biogas generator or a small wind turbine. The biogas generator would burn methane gas. The methane gas would come from rotting the animal waste produced on the farm. When burnt, methane produces carbon dioxide. The biogas generator would cost to buy and install. The wind turbine would cost to buy and install. The average power output from the wind turbine would be the same as the continuous output from the biogas generator. Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of the two methods of generating electricity. Conclude, with a reason, which system would be better for the farmer to buy and install. (6) (Total 9 marks) Q0. Electricity is generated in power stations. It is then sent to all parts of the country through a network of cables. (a) Complete the following sentence by using one of the words in the box. Grid Power Supply The network is called the National.... () Page 9 of 39 (b) In the diagram, A, B, C and D are transformers. (i) Which transformer, A,B,C or D, is a step-up transformer? Transformer... () (ii) Which transformer, A, B, C or D will supply homes, offices and shops? Transformer... () (c) Complete the following sentence by drawing a ring around the correct line in the box. In a step-up transformer, the potential difference (p.d.) across the less than primary coil is the same as the p.d. across the secondary coil. more than () (Total 4 marks) Q. (a) (i) A student wrote Coal traps energy from the Sun . Explain what the student means (2) (ii) How is energy released from coal?.... () Page 20 of 39 (b) The diagram shows the waste products from a coal-fired power station. (i) In what form does the power station waste energy?.. () (ii) Carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere will lead to a rise in the Earth s temperature. Why?.... () (Total 5 marks) Page 2 of 39 Q2. Four students are talking about the different energy sources used to generate electricity in the areas where they live. (a) Draw one line from where each student lives (List A) to the energy source in their area (List B). Draw only four lines. List A Where each student lives List B Energy source Wind Where I live is the sunniest part of the country. Waves Where I live, the land is very flat and it always seems to be windy. Solar Where I live, it is not safe to swim. The sea is always too rough. Tides Where I live, you can see steam coming out of the ground. Geothermal (4) (b) All of the energy sources given in part (a) can be used to generate electricity. What else do all these energy sources have in common? () Page 22 of 39 (c) In a hydroelectric power station, the energy from falling water is used to generate electricity. Which one of the following gives a disadvantage of a hydroelectric power station? Put a tick ( ) in the box next to your answer. has a fast start-up time large areas of land are flooded polluting gases are produced () (Total 6 marks) Q3. The outline diagram below shows part of the National Grid. At X the transformer increases the voltage to a very high value. At Y the voltage is reduced to 240 V for use by consumers. (i) At X a transformer increases the voltage. What happens to the current as the voltage is increased?... () (ii) Why is electrical energy transmitted at very high voltages? () Page 23 of 39 (iii) The transformer at Y reduces the voltage before it is supplied to houses. Why is this done? () (Total 3 marks) Page 24 of 39 M. (a) (i) any one from: waves do not accept water tides falling water accept hydroelectric biofuel / biomass solar accept sun / sunlight do not accept light accept solar cells / panels (ii) geothermal do not accept heat decrease (b) (i) increases from 4am (to 8am) remains constant from 8am (to 0am) accept increases from accept stays constant from allow mark for goes up then stays the same for full credit must be some indication of time or power 2 (ii) natural gas [5] M2. (a) 9.20 allow mark for correct substitution ie 60 2 allow mark for an answer ( )920 an answer of 920p gains both marks an answer of gains both marks allow mark for Page 25 of 39 (b) 340 allow mark for correctly using the reading ie accept for both marks 2 [4] M3. (a) increases the voltage (across the cables) or decreases the current (through the cables) reducing energy losses (in cables) accept heat for energy do not accept electricity for energy do not accept no energy loss accept wires do not get as hot or increases efficiency of (electricity / energy) transmission ignore reference to travel faster Page 26 of 39 (b) Marks awarded for this answer will be determined by the Quality of Written Communication (QWC) as well as the standard of the scientific response. Examiners should also refer to the Marking Guidance, and apply a best-fit approach to the marking. 0 marks No relevant content Level (-2 marks) There is a brief description of one advantage or disadvantage of using either overhead or underground cables. Level 2 (3-4 marks) There is a description of some of the advantages and / or disadvantages for both overhead and underground cables, with a minimum of three points made. There must be at least one point for each type of cable. Level 3 (5-6 marks) There is a clear and detailed description of the advantages and disadvantages of overhead and underground cables, with a minimum of five points made. At least one advantage and one disadvantage for each type of cable. examples of the points made in the response Overhead Advantages marks may be gained by linking an advantage for one type of cable with a disadvantage for the other type of cable eg overhead cables are easy to repair = mark overhead cables are easier to repair = mark overhead cables are easier to repair than underground cables = 2 marks (relatively) quick / easy to repair / maintain / access easy to install is insufficient do not accept easy to spot / see a fault less expensive to install / repair / maintain less expensive is insufficient cables cooled by the air accept thermal energy / heat removed by the air air acts as electrical insulator accept there is no need for electrical insulation (around the cables) can use thinner cables difficult to reach is insufficient land beneath cables can still be used is insufficient Disadvantages spoil the landscape greater risk of (fatal) electric shock damaged / affected by (severe) weather Page 27 of 39 accept specific examples eg high winds, ice more maintenance is insufficient hazard to low flying aircraft / helicopters kites / fishing lines can touch them is insufficient hazard to aircraft is insufficient Underground Advantages cannot be seen no hazard to aircraft / helicopters unlikely to be / not damaged / affected by (severe) weather less maintenance is insufficient (normally) no / reduced shock hazard installed in urban areas is insufficient Disadvantages repairs take longer / are more expensive accept harder to repair / maintain have to dig up for repairs is insufficient (more) difficult to access (cables) hard to locate (cables) is insufficient faults hard to find is insufficient (very) expensive to install thicker cables required need cooling systems need layers of electrical insulation land disruption (to lay cables) accept damage to environment / habitat(s) or cannot use land either side of cable path accept restricted land use 6 Page 28 of 39 (c) examples of acceptable responses: allow mark for each correct point closest to cables field from underground is stronger field from overhead cables stronger after 5 metres field from underground cables drops rapidly field from overhead cables does not drop much until after 20 metres accept values between 20 and 30 inclusive overhead field drops to zero at / after 50 metres underground field drops to zero at / after 30 metres (strength of) field decreases with distance for both types of cable if suitably amplified this may score both marks 2 (d) ethical [] M4. (a) (i) water heated accept boiled or turned to steam do not accept evaporated generator (ii) geothermal power stations provide a reliable source of electricity (b) falling water [5] M5. (a) (i) energy from hot rocks in the Earth accept heat that occurs naturally in the Earth accept steam / hot water rising to the Earth s surface accept an answer in terms of the energy released by radioactive decay in the Earth heat energy is insufficient Page 29 of 39 (ii) water is pumped / moved up (to a higher reservoir) this mark point only scores if first mark point is awarded (b) Marks awarded for this answer will be determined by the Quality of Written Communication (QWC) as well as the standard of the scientific response. Examiners should also refer to the Marking Guidance and apply a best-fit approach to the marking. 0 marks No relevant content Level (-2 marks) There is a brief description of at least one advantage or disadvantage for either the planned wind turbines or the suggested electricity power link. Level 2 (3-4 marks) There is a description of advantages and disadvantages for either the planned wind turbines or the suggested electricity power link. or A description of the advantages or disadvantages for both the planned wind turbines and the suggested electricity power link. Level 3 (5-6 marks) There is a clear and detailed description of at least one advantage and one disadvantage for both the planned wind turbines and suggested electricity power link. examples of the points made in the response Offshore wind turbines advantages renewable (energy resource) low running costs energy is free no gas emissions (when in use) accept a named gas eg CO 2 accept no fuel is burned accept less dependent on fossil fuels land is not used (up) Page 30 of 39 disadvantages unreliable accept wind does not always blow ignore references to destroying or harming habitats hazard to birds / bats visual pollution do not accept noise pollution do not allow if clearly referring to onshore wind turbines do not accept spoils landscape difficulty of linking turbines to the National Grid large initial cost difficult to erect / maintain accept a lot of maintenance needed CO 2 emissions in manufacture (of large number of turbines) Suggested Link advantages income for Iceland using Iceland s (available) energy (resources) accept using (Iceland s) renewable energy (resources) do not accept reduce the amount of Iceland s wasted energy provide electricity when wind does not blow / reliable provide electricity at times of peak demand even out fluctuations in supply excess electricity from Britain (windy days) to Iceland and used to pump water up to store energy Britain less dependent on fossil fuels accept Britain needs fewer (new) power stations accept conserves fossil fuels disadvantages large initial cost accept expensive (to lay cables) power loss along a long cable (engineering) difficulties in laying / maintaining the cable accept difficult to repair (if damaged) 6 [0] Page 3 of 39 M6. (a) (i) changing the distance may / will affect / change the voltmeter reading accept so only one independent variable accept distance affects speed of wind (turbine) accept it is a control variable accept to give valid results fair test is insufficient to make the results accurate is insufficient (ii) any sensible practical suggestions, eg so fan reaches a steady / full speed accept power for speed so wind (turbine) reaches a steady / full speed so voltmeter reaches / gives a steady reading accept accurate or valid reading a correct reading is insufficient do not accept precise reading (iii) as the number of blades increases
Recommended
View more...
We Need Your Support
Thank you for visiting our website and your interest in our free products and services. We are nonprofit website to share and download documents. To the running of this website, we need your help to support us.

Thanks to everyone for your continued support.

No, Thanks