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Exampro GCSE Physics P Foundation - Calculating Energy and Momentum Self Study Questions Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 95 Marks: 95 Comments: Page of 36 Q. A paintball gun is used to fire a small ball

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Exampro GCSE Physics P Foundation - Calculating Energy and Momentum Self Study Questions Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 95 Marks: 95 Comments: Page of 36 Q. A paintball gun is used to fire a small ball of paint, called a paintball, at a target. The figure below shows someone just about to fire a paintball gun. The paintball is inside the gun. (a) What is the momentum of the paintball before the gun is fired?... Give a reason for your answer (b) The gun fires the paintball forwards at a velocity of 90 m / s. The paintball has a mass of kg. Calculate the momentum of the paintball just after the gun is fired. Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet Momentum =... kg m / s Page of 36 (c) The momentum of the gun and paintball is conserved. Use the correct answer from the box to complete the sentence. equal to greater than less than The total momentum of the gun and paintball just after the gun is fired will be... the total momentum of the gun and paintball before the gun is fired. () (Total 5 marks) Q. The figure below shows a slide in a children s playground. (a) A child of mass 8 kilograms goes down the slide. The vertical distance from the top to the bottom of the slide is.5 metres. Calculate the decrease in gravitational potential energy of the child sliding from the top to the bottom of the slide. Gravitational field strength = 0 N / kg Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet Decrease in gravitational potential energy =... J Page 3 of 36 (b) The slide is made of plastic. (i) The child becomes electrically charged when he goes down the slide. Explain why. Going down the slide causes the child s hair to stand on end. What conclusion about the electrical charge on the child s hair can be made from this observation? Give a reason for your answer. (iii) Why would the child not become electrically charged if the slide was made from metal? () (Total 7 marks) Page 4 of 36 Q3. The diagram shows a climber part way up a cliff. (a) Complete the sentence. When the climber moves up the cliff, the climber gains gravitational... energy. () (b) The climber weighs 660 N. (i) Calculate the work the climber must do against gravity, to climb to the top of the cliff. Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet. Work done =... J It takes the climber 800 seconds to climb to the top of the cliff. During this time the energy transferred to the climber equals the work done by the climber. Calculate the power of the climber during the climb. Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet. Power =... W (Total 5 marks) Page 5 of 36 Q4. A car has an oil leak. Every 5 seconds an oil drop falls from the bottom of the car onto the road. (a) What force causes the oil drop to fall towards the road?... () (b) The diagram shows the spacing of the oil drops left on the road during part of a journey Describe the motion of the car as it moves from A to B.... Explain the reason for your answer (3) (c) When the brakes are applied, a braking force slows down and stops the car. (i) The size of the braking force affects the braking distance of the car. State one other factor that affects the braking distance of the car. () A braking force of 3 kn is used to slow down and stop the car in a distance of 5 m. Calculate the work done by the brakes to stop the car and give the unit. Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet. Work done =... (3) (Total 8 marks) Page 6 of 36 Q5. Part of a bus route is along a high street. The distance-time graph shows how far the bus travelled along the high street and how long it took. Time in seconds (a) Between which two points was the bus travelling the slowest? Put a tick ( ) in the box next to your answer. Points Tick ( ) A B C D D E Give a reason for your answer Page 7 of 36 (b) The bus travels at 5 m/s between points A and B. The bus and passengers have a total mass of kg. Use the equation in the box to calculate the momentum of the bus and passengers between points A and B. momentum = mass x velocity Show clearly how you work out your answer Momentum =... kg m/s (c) A cyclist made the same journey along the high street. The cyclist started at the same time as the bus and completed the journey in 0 seconds. The cyclist travelled the whole distance at a constant speed. (i) Draw a line on the graph to show the cyclist s journey. After how many seconds did the cyclist overtake the bus? The cyclist overtook the bus after... seconds. () (Total 7 marks) Page 8 of 36 Q6. (a) The diagram shows a builder using a plank to help load rubble into a skip. The builder uses a force of 0 N to push the wheelbarrow up the plank. Use information from the diagram and the equation in the box to calculate the work done to push the wheelbarrow up the plank to the skip. work done = force applied distance moved in the direction of force Show clearly how you work out your answer Work done =... J Page 9 of 36 (b) A student investigated how the force needed to pull a brick up a slope, at a steady speed, depends on the angle of the slope. The apparatus used by the student is shown in the diagram. The student used the results from the investigation to plot the points for a graph of force used against the angle of the slope. (i) Draw a line of best fit for these points. How does the force used to pull the brick up the slope change as the angle of the slope increases? () () Page 0 of 36 (iii) Consider the results from this experiment. Should the student recommend that the builder use a long plank or a short plank to help load the skip? Draw a ring around your answer. long plank short plank Explain the reason for your answer. (Total 6 marks) Q7. The picture shows three skateboarders, A, B and C. Skateboarder A is not moving. Skateboarder B is moving towards the ramp at a constant speed. Skateboarder C is moving on the ramp at a constant speed. (a) The skateboarders have different amounts of kinetic energy. Which two factors affect the kinetic energy of the skateboarders? Put a tick ( ) in the box next to your answer. direction and mass mass and speed speed and direction () Page of 36 (b) The skateboarders also have different amounts of momentum. (i) Which one of the skateboarders has the smallest amount of momentum? Draw a ring around your answer. A B C Give a reason for your answer. Skateboarder B has a mass of 55 kg. Use the equation in the box to calculate the momentum of skateboarder B when moving at 4 m/s. momentum = mass velocity Show clearly how you work out your answer. Momentum =... kg m/s (Total 5 marks) Q8. (a) The diagram shows an athlete at the start of a race. The race is along a straight track. In the first seconds, the athlete accelerates constantly and reaches a speed of 9 m/s. Page of 36 (i) Use the equation in the box to calculate the acceleration of the athlete. Show clearly how you work out your answer Acceleration =... Which one of the following is the unit for acceleration? Draw a ring around your answer. J/s m/s m/s Nm () (iii) Complete the following sentence. The velocity of the athlete is the... of the athlete in a given direction. () Page 3 of 36 (iv) Complete the graph to show how the velocity of the athlete changes during the first seconds of the race. (b) Many running shoes have a cushioning system. This reduces the impact force on the athlete as the heel of the running shoe hits the ground. Page 4 of 36 The bar chart shows the maximum impact force for three different makes of running shoe used on three different types of surface. (i) Which one of the three makes of running shoe, A, B or C, has the best cushioning system?... Explain the reason for your answer (3) The data needed to draw the bar chart was obtained using a robotic athlete fitted with electronic sensors. Why is this data likely to be more reliable than data obtained using human athletes? () (Total 0 marks) Page 5 of 36 Q9. (a) A van has a mass of 300 kg. The diagram shows the van just before and just after it collides with the back of a car. Before collision After collision Just before the collision, the van was moving at 5 m/s and the car was stationary. (i) Use the equation in the box to calculate the momentum of the van just before the collision. momentum = mass velocity Show clearly how you work out your answer. Momentum =... kg m/s The collision makes the van and car join together. What is the total momentum of the van and the car just after the collision? Momentum =... kg m/s () (iii) Complete the following sentence by drawing a ring around the correct line in the box. more than The momentum of the car before the collision is the same as the less than momentum of the car after the collision. () Page 6 of 36 (b) A seat belt is one of the safety features of a car. In a collision, wearing a seat belt reduces the risk of injury. Use words or phrases from the box to complete the following sentences. decreases stays the same increases In a collision, the seat belt stretches. The time it takes for the person held by the seat belt to lose momentum compared to a person not wearing a seat belt,.... The force on the person s body... and so reduces the risk of injury. (Total 6 marks) Q0. (a) A chair lift carries two skiers, Greg and Jill, to the top of a ski slope. Greg weighs 700 N and Jill weighs 500 N. Page 7 of 36 (i) Write down the equation that links distance moved, force applied and work done.... () Calculate the work done to lift Greg and Jill through a vertical height of 00 m. Show clearly how you work out your answer and give the unit work done =... (3) (b) The chair takes 5 minutes to move from the bottom to the top of the ski slope. Use the following equation to calculate the power required to lift Greg and Jill to the top of the ski slope. Show clearly how you work out your answer. power = power =... watts (c) The chair lift is driven by an electric motor. (i) Why would the power output of the electric motor need to be larger than your answer to part (b)? () Complete the following sentence. When the ski lift is working... energy supplied to the motor is usefully transferred as gravitational... energy. () (Total 8 marks) Page 8 of 36 Q. (a) The diagram shows three identical go-karts, P, Q and R, travelling at different speeds along the straight part of an outdoor racetrack. Which go-kart, P, Q or R, has the greatest momentum?... Give the reason for your answer (b) The total mass of go-kart Q and the driver is 30 kg. (i) Use the equation in the box to calculate the total momentum of go-kart Q and the driver. momentum = mass velocity Show clearly how you work out your answer. Momentum =... Which of the following is the unit of momentum? Draw a ring around your answer. J/s kg m/s Nm () (c) To race safely at high speed, a go-kart driver must have fast reaction times and the outdoor racetrack should be dry. (i) How would being tired affect a driver s reaction time? () Page 9 of 36 How would a wet track affect the braking distance of a go-kart? () (Total 7 marks) Q. The diagram below shows one way of lifting a bucket of bricks. (a) When the free end of the rope is pulled down, the load is lifted. Complete the following sentence. The work done in pulling the rope down is used to increase the... energy of the... and bricks. (b) The weight of the bricks is 00 N and they are lifted 3 m. Calculate the work done on the bricks Answer... J (Total 4 marks) Page 0 of 36 Q3. The diagram shows a supermarket worker stacking jars of coffee onto a shelf. (a) The mass of each jar of coffee is 0.4 kg. Calculate the weight of each jar of coffee. gravitational field strength = 0 N/kg Write down the equation you use, and then show clearly how you work out your answer Weight =... N Page of 36 (b) The distance between the floor and the middle shelf is. m. Calculate the work done to lift one jar of coffee from the floor onto the shelf. Write down the equation you use, and then show clearly how you work out your answer and give the unit Work done =... (3) (Total 5 marks) Q4. A forklift truck was used to stack boxes on to a trailer. It lifted a box weighing 900 N through 4.5 m. Calculate the work done on the box. Show your working Work done =... J (Total 3 marks) Page of 36 Q5. (a) The weightlifter in the picture has lifted a weight of 50 newtons above his head. The weight is held still. (i) In the box are the names of three forms of energy. gravitational potential kinetic sound Which one of these forms of energy does the weight have?... () What force is used by the weightlifter to hold the weight still? Size of force =... N Give a reason for your answer (b) To lift the weight, the weightlifter does 4500 joules of work in 3.0 seconds. Use the following equation to calculate the power developed by the weightlifter. Show clearly how you work out your answer Power =... watts (Total 5 marks) Page 3 of 36 Q6. A cyclist accelerates from a set of traffic lights. The driving force of the back tyre on the ground is 50 N. (a) How much work is done by this force when the cyclist travels 5 metres? (Show your working.) Answer... joules (J) (b) What happens to the energy transferred by this force? (Total 4 marks) Page 4 of 36 M. (a) Zero / 0 Accept none Nothing is insufficent velocity / speed = 0 accept it is not moving paintball has not been fired is insufficient (b) 0.7 allow mark for correct substitution, ie p = 0.003(0) 90 provided no subsequent step (c) equal to [5] Page 5 of 36 M. (a) 450 allow mark for correct substitution, ie provided no subsequent step shown (b) (i) friction between child ( s clothing) and slide accept friction between two insulators accept child rubs against the slide accept when two insulators rub (together) causes electron / charge transfer (between child and slide) accept specific reference, eg electrons move onto / off the child / slide reference to positive electrons / protons / positive charge / atoms transfer negates this mark answers in terms of the slide being initially charged score zero all the charges (on the hair) are the same (polarity) accept (all) the charge/hair is negative / positive accept it is positive/negative charges / hairs are repelling both parts should be marked together (iii) charge would pass through the metal (to earth) accept metal is a conductor accept metal is not an insulator accept there is no charge / electron transfer accept the slide is earthed accept metals contain free electrons [7] M3. (a) potential (b) (i) 3 00 allow mark for correct substitution, ie provided no subsequent step shown Page 6 of 36 6.5 allow mark for correct or correctly calculated substitution, ie or provided no subsequent step shown [5] M4. (a) gravitational / gravity / weight do not accept gravitational potential (b) accelerating accept speed / velocity increases the distance between the drops increases but the time between the drops is the same accept the time between drops is (always) 5 seconds accept the drops fall at the same rate (c) (i) any one from: speed / velocity (condition of) brakes / road surface / tyres weather (conditions) accept specific examples, eg wet / icy roads accept mass / weight of car friction is insufficient reference to any factor affecting thinking distance negates this answer allow mark for correct substitution, ie provided no subsequent step shown or allow mark for an answer 75 or allow marks for 75 k(+ incorrect unit), eg 75 kn Page 7 of 36 joules / J do not accept j an answer 75 kj gains 3 marks for full marks the unit and numerical answer must be consistent [8] M5. (a) D E reason only scores if D E chosen shallowest slope / gradient accept smallest distance in biggest time accept longest time to travel the same distance accept the line is not as steep accept it is a less steep line do not accept the line is not steep (b) allow mark for correct substitution, ie provided no subsequent step shown (c) (i) straight line starting at origin accept within one small square of the origin passing through t = 0 and d = 500 (i) 86 accept any value between 80 and 88 accept where their line intersects given graph line correctly read ±4 s [7] M6. (a) 57 allow mark for correct substitution, ie 0.6 allow mark for 0 60 = or = but to score this mark the entire calculation must be shown Page 8 of 36 (b) (i) smooth curve drawn accept a line that is extrapolated back to 0 degrees, but not through the origin accept a straight line of best fit (point at 40 degrees can be treated as anomalous and line may stop at 30 degrees) do not accept straight lines drawn dot to dot or directly from first to last point or a line going through the origin (iii) increases accept a positive correlation do not accept proportional long plank no mark for this, the marks are for the explanation makes the angle small(er) (than a short plank) accept increases the distance accept small(er) slope a small(er) force is needed or short plank no mark for this, the marks are for the explanation a large(r) force is used over a short(er) distance () less work done () accept less energy transfer [6] M7. (a) mass and speed (b) (i) A reason cannot score if B or C chosen velocity = 0 (m/s) accept speed for velocity accept not moving accept lowest velocity / speed Page 9 of 36 0 allow mark for correct substitution, ie 55 4 provided no subsequent step shown [5] M8. (a) (i) 4.5 allow mark for correct substitution i.e. 9 m/s accept answer given in (a)(i) if not contradicted here (iii) (iv) speed straight line from the origin passing through (s, 9m/s) allow mark for straight line from the origin passing through to t = seconds allow mark for an attempt to draw a straight line from the origin passing through (,9) allow mark for a minimum of 3 points plotted with no line provided if joined up would give correct answer. Points must include(0,0) and (,9) (b) (i) B if A or C given scores 0 marks in total smallest (impact) force on all/ every/ any surfaces these marks are awarded for comparative answers Page 30 of 36 (conditions) can be repeated or difficult to measure forces with human athletes accept answers in terms of variations in human athletes e.g. athletes may have different weights area / size of feet may be different difficult to measure forces athletes run at different speeds accept any answer that states or implies that with humans the conditions needed to repeat tests may not be constant e.g. athletes unable to maintain constant speed during tests (or during repeat tests) do not accept the robots are more accurate removes human error is insufficient fair test is insufficient [0] M9. (a) (i) allow mark for correct substitution ie or their (a)(i) (iii) less than (b) increases decreases correct order only [6] Page 3 of 36 M0. (a) (i) work (done) = force (applied) distance (moved) accept W = F s or W = F d accept provided subsequent method is correct allow mark for correct substitution or correct use of 00 (N) joules accept J do not accept j / Nm (b) 800 (watts) accept 0.8 kw accept their (a) 300 correctly evaluated for marks allow mark for correct substitution (a) 5 correctly evaluated for mark (c) (i) any one from: needs to raise the chair / lift lifting more than one chair allow lifting more than people implication of a heavier weight energy transfer to the surroundings correctly qualified accept loss for transfer do not accept motor inefficient do not accept motor gets hot do not accept friction unless the location is specified as external to the motor electrical accept electric potential both answers required for the mark [8] M. (a) R reason cannot score if R is not chosen Page 3 of 36 has the greatest speed / velocity accept it is going at 8 m/s answer should be comparative (b) (i) 350 allow mark for correct substitution of 30 and 5 ie 30 5 accept 600 or 3640 for mark kg m/s accept answer given in (b)(i) if no answer given here (c) (i) increase it accept make it slower accept slow it down accept make it longer accept (reactions) would be slower do not accept if the answer clearly refers to distance comparative answers

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