Exampro GCSE Physics. P2 Foundation - Radioactive Self Study Questions. Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 81. Marks: 81. Comments: Page 1 of 34 - PDF

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Exampro GCSE Physics P2 Foundation - Radioactive Self Study Questions Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 8 Marks: 8 Comments: Page of 34 Q. (a) The figure below shows a helium atom. (i) Which one of the
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Exampro GCSE Physics P2 Foundation - Radioactive Self Study Questions Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 8 Marks: 8 Comments: Page of 34 Q. (a) The figure below shows a helium atom. (i) Which one of the particles in the atom is not charged? Draw a ring around the correct answer. electron neutron proton () Which two types of particle in the atom have the same mass?... and... () (iii) What is the atomic number of a helium atom? Draw a ring around the correct answer Give a reason for your answer. (2) (b) Alpha particles are one type of nuclear radiation. (i) Name one other type of nuclear radiation. () Use the correct answer from the box to complete the sentence. electrons neutrons protons The difference between an alpha particle and a helium atom is that the alpha particle does not have any.... () Page 2 of 34 (iii) Which one of the following is a property of alpha particles? Tick ( ) one box. Have a long range in air Are highly ionising Will pass through metals () (c) Doctors may use nuclear radiation to treat certain types of illness. Treating an illness with radiation may also harm a patient. (i) Complete the following sentence. The risk from treating a patient with radiation is that the radiation may... healthy body cells. () Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete the sentence. Radiation may be used to treat a patient if the risk from the radiation is much bigger than about the same as much smaller than the possible benefit of having the treatment. () (Total 9 marks) Page 3 of 34 Q2. The pie chart shows the sources of the background radiation and the radiation doses that the average person in the UK is exposed to in one year. Radiation dose is measured in millisieverts (msv). (a) (i) What is the total radiation dose that the average person in the UK receives? Total radiation dose =... msv () A student looked at the pie chart and then wrote down three statements. Which one of the following statements is a correct conclusion from this data? Put a tick ( ) in the box next to your answer. In the future, more people will be exposed to a greater proportion of radon gas. People that have never had an X-ray get 50 % of their radiation dose from radon gas. The radiation dose from natural sources is much greater than from artificial sources. () Page 4 of 34 (b) The concentration of radon gas inside a home can vary from day to day. The table gives data for the radiation measured in homes in four different parts of the UK. The radiation was measured using two detectors, one in the living room and one in the bedroom. The measurements were taken over 3 months. Area of the UK Number of homes in the area Number of homes in the sample Average radiation in Bq/m 3 Maximum radiation in Bq/m 3 A B C D (i) Give one reason why the measurements were taken over 3 months using detectors in different rooms. () Use information from the table to suggest why a much higher proportion of homes were sampled in areas C and D than in areas A and B. (2) (Total 5 marks) Page 5 of 34 Q3. (a) The names of three types of radiation are given in List A. Some properties of these three types of radiation are given in List B. Draw one line from each type of radiation in List A to its correct property in List B. List A Type of radiation alpha beta gamma List B Property of radiation will pass through paper but is stopped by thin metal has the shortest range in air will not harm human cells is very weakly ionising (3) (b) The radioactive isotope iodine-23 can be used by a doctor to examine the thyroid gland of a patient. The iodine, taken as a tablet, is absorbed by the thyroid gland. The gamma radiation emitted as the iodine atoms decay is detected outside the body. The doctor uses an isotope emitting gamma radiation to examine the thyroid gland rather than an isotope emitting alpha or beta radiation. Which one of the following gives a reason why gamma radiation is used? Tick ( ) one box. Gamma radiation will pass through the body. Gamma radiation is not deflected by a magnet. Gamma radiation has a long range in air. () Page 6 of 34 (c) Iodine-23 has a half-life of 3 hours. Use a word from the box to complete the sentence. all half most After 3 hours... of the iodine-23 atoms the thyroid absorbed have decayed. () (d) Iodine-23 and iodine-3 are two of the isotopes of iodine. Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete the sentence. electrons The nucleus of an iodine-23 atom has the same number of neutrons as the protons nucleus of an iodine-3 atom. () (Total 6 marks) Q4. The pie chart shows the sources of the background radiation and the radiation doses that the average person in the UK is exposed to in one year. Radiation dose is measured in millisieverts (msv). Page 7 of 34 (a) (i) What is the radiation dose that the average person in the UK receives from radon gas? Radiation dose from radon gas =... msv () A person may receive a higher than average dose of radiation from background sources. Suggest two reasons why (2) (b) Exposure to radon gas can cause lung cancer. A recent study has compared the risk of getting lung cancer, by the age of 75 years, for cigarette smokers and non-smokers. The people in the study had been exposed throughout their lives to different levels of radon gas. A summary of the data produced from the study is given in the table. Exposure to radon gas Risk of lung cancer by age of 75 Non-smoker Smoker No exposure 0.4 % 0 % Moderate exposure Very high exposure.0 % 4 %.5 % 32 % (i) Why were people that have had no exposure to radon gas included in the study? () Page 8 of 34 Using information from the table, what conclusions can be made about exposure to radon gas and the risk of getting lung cancer? (2) (c) At the moment, the regulations designed to protect people from over-exposure to radiation are based on a model called the linear no-threshold (LNT) model. Some scientists believe that the LNT model is too simple.these scientists believe that at low radiation levels a process called radiation hormesis happens. The graphs show that each model suggests a link between the risk of developing a cancer and exposure to low levels of radiation. The link between the risk of developing cancer and exposure to low levels of radiation suggested by each of the models is different. Describe how (2) Page 9 of 34 (d) Scientists have conducted experiments in which mice have been exposed to different levels of radiation. The number of mice developing a cancer has then been measured. Discuss whether it is ethical to use animals in scientific experiments (2) (Total 0 marks) Q5. (a) Sources of background radiation are either natural or man-made. Which two of the sources listed in the box are natural sources of background radiation? Draw a ring around each of your answers. cosmic rays nuclear accidents X-rays radon gas (2) Page 0 of 34 (b) A teacher used a Geiger-Műller (GM) tube and counter to measure the background radiation in her laboratory. The teacher reset the counter to zero, waited one minute and then took the count reading. The teacher repeated this two more times. The three readings taken by the teacher are given in the table. Count (i) The three readings are different. What is the most likely reason for this? Tick ( ) one box. The teacher did not reset the counter to zero. Radioactive decay is a random process. The temperature in the laboratory changed. () Calculate the mean (average) value of the three readings given in the table. Mean (average) value =... counts () Page of 34 (iii) The diagram shows how the teacher used the GM tube and counter to measure the radiation emitted from a radioactive source. The counter was reset to zero. The count after one minute was 59. Calculate how many counts were due to the radiation from the radioactive source. Counts due to the radiation from the radioactive source =... () (iv) The teacher then put a powerful magnet between the radioactive source and the GM tube. The counter was reset to zero. The number on the counter shows the count after one minute. What type of radiation was being emitted from the radioactive source? Draw a ring around your answer. alpha beta gamma Explain the reason for your answer. (3) Page 2 of 34 (c) At the end of the lesson the teacher put the radioactive source back inside its storage box. Why is the inside of the box lined with lead? () (d) Which one of the following questions cannot be answered by scientific study? Tick ( ) one box. Where does background radiation come from? What is meant by the half-life of a radioactive source? Should radioactive waste be dumped in the oceans? () (Total 0 marks) Q6. (a) Background radiation is all around us all the time. (i) Radon is a natural source of background radiation. Name another natural source of background radiation. () X-rays are an artificial source of background radiation. Name another artificial source of background radiation. () Page 3 of 34 (iii) An atom of radon-222 decays by emitting an alpha particle. The equation representing the decay is shown below. How can you tell from the equation that X is not an atom of radon? () (b) Having an X-ray taken increases your exposure to radiation. The table gives: the radiation doses received for 6 different medical X-rays; the number of days of exposure to natural background radiation each dose is equivalent to. Medical X-ray Radiation dose received (in arbitrary units) Equivalent number of days of exposure to natural background radiation Chest Skull Pelvis Hip Spine 40 CT head scan A hospital patient has an X-ray of the spine taken. Calculate the number of days of exposure to natural background radiation that an X-ray of the spine is equivalent to. Show how you work out your answer Equivalent number of days =... (2) Page 4 of 34 (c) Scientists have shown that X-rays increase the risk of developing cancer. The scientists came to this conclusion by studying the medical history of people placed in one of two groups, A or B. The group into which people were put depended on their X-ray record. (i) Person J has been placed into group A. Place each of the people, K, L, M, N and O, into the appropriate group, A or B. J K L M N O Person Medical X-ray record 3 arm None None 2 skull None 4 leg Group A Group B J () To be able to make a fair comparison, what is important about the number of people in each of the two groups studied by the scientists? () (iii) What data would the scientists have compared in order to come to the conclusion that X-rays increase the risk of developing cancer? () Page 5 of 34 (iv) The chance of developing cancer due to a CT head scan is about in The chance of developing cancer naturally is about in 4. A hospital patient is advised by a doctor that she needs to have a CT head scan. The doctor explains to the patient the risks involved. Do you think that the patient should give her permission for the CT scan to be taken? Draw a ring around your answer. Yes No Give a reason for your answer. () (Total 9 marks) Q7. The diagram shows the structure of an atom. Not drawn to scale (a) In 93 scientists thought that atoms contained only protons and electrons. Suggest what happened in 932 to change the idea that atoms contained only protons and electrons () Page 6 of 34 (b) The table gives information about the particles in an atom. Complete the table by adding the names of the particles. Particle Relative Mass Relative Charge 0 very small + (2) (Total 3 marks) Q8. The table gives information about the three types of particle that make up an atom. Particle Relative mass Relative charge Proton + Neutron Electron very small (a) (b) (c) Complete the table by adding the two missing values. Use the information in the table to explain why an atom has no overall electrical charge Uranium has two natural isotopes, uranium-235 and uranium-238. Uranium-235 is used as a fuel inside a nuclear reactor. Inside the reactor, atoms of uranium-235 are split and energy is released. (2) (2) (i) How is the structure of an atom of uranium-235 different from the structure of an atom of uranium-238? () The nucleus of a uranium-235 atom must absorb a particle before the atom is able to split. What type of particle is absorbed?... () Page 7 of 34 (iii) The nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts in a reactor. What name is given to this process?... () (Total 7 marks) Q9. The diagram represents an atom of beryllium. The three types of particle that make up the atom have been labelled. (a) Use the labels from the diagram to complete the following statements. Each label should be used once. The particle with a positive charge is.... The particle with the smallest mass is.... The particle with no charge is.... (2) (b) What is the mass number of a beryllium atom? Draw a ring around your answer Give a reason for your answer (2) (Total 4 marks) Page 8 of 34 Q0. (a) A radioactive source can give out three types of emission: alpha particles beta particles gamma radiation. The diagram shows the paths taken by the radiation emitted by two sources, X and Y. What types of radiation are emitted by each of the sources? Source X emits... Source Y emits... (2) (b) The diagram shows a disposable syringe sealed inside a plastic bag. After the bag has been sealed the syringe is sterilised using radiation. Explain why radiation can be used to sterilise the syringe (3) (Total 5 marks) Page 9 of 34 Q. (a) The diagram represents a helium atom. (i) Which part of the atom, K, L, M or N, is an electron? Part () Which part of the atom, K, L, M or N, is the same as an alpha particle? Part () (b) A radioactive source emits alpha particles. What might this source be used for? Put a tick ( ) in the box next to your answer. to monitor the thickness of aluminium foil as it is made in a factory to make a smoke detector work to inject into a person as a medical tracer () Page 20 of 34 (c) The graph shows how the count rate from a source of alpha radiation changes with time. What is the count rate after 4 hours?... counts per second () (Total 4 marks) Q2. (a) The diagram shows three different boxes and three radioactive sources. Each source is stored in a different box. Draw lines to show which source should be stored in each box so that the risk of radiation leakage is a minimum. (2) Page 2 of 34 (b) A leak in an underground oil pipe can be found by injecting a radioactive isotope into the oil. The ground is then tested with a radiation detector and counter. (i) State the type of detector used.... Complete the sketch graph to show how the reading on the detector will change as it passes along the ground above the pipe. () () (c) Gamma radiation can be used to kill cancer cells inside a person s head. During the treatment the patient is kept perfectly still while the source of gamma radiation moves in a circle. (i) Why is a source of gamma radiation the most suitable for this treatment?... () Page 22 of 34 Suggest why a moving source of radiation is used rather than one which is kept stationary (2) (iii) Gamma radiation is an electromagnetic wave. Give two properties common to all electromagnetic waves (2) (Total 9 marks) Page 23 of 34 M. (a) (i) neutron neutron proton both required, either order (iii) 2 number of protons do not accept number of electrons (b) (i) any one from: beta (iii) gamma accept correct symbols accept positron / neutrino / neutron cosmic rays is insufficient electrons are highly ionising (c) (i) mutate / destroy / kill / damage / change / ionise Harm is insufficient much smaller than [9] M2. (a) (i) 2.5 The radiation dose from natural sources is much greater than from artificial sources (b) (i) any one from: different concentrations in different rooms to average out daily fluctuations accept to find an average accept to make the result (more) reliable / valid do not accept to make more accurate on its own Page 24 of 34 average level (much) higher (in C and D) accept converse some homes have very high level (in C and D) accept maximum level in A and B is low or maximum level in some homes (in C and D) is very high accept higher radiation levels (in C and D) for mark [5] M3. (a) 3 lines correct allow mark for each correct line if more than one line is drawn from any type of radiation box then all of those lines are wrong 3 (b) Gamma radiation will pass through the body (c) half (d) protons [6] M4. (a) (i).25 (msv) Page 25 of 34 any two from: (frequent) flying accept stated occupation that involves flying living at altitude living in areas with high radon concentrations accept a specific area, eg Cornwall living in a building made from granite (blocks) having more than the average number of X-rays or having a CT scan accept more medical treatments working in a nuclear power station accept any suggestion that could reasonably increase the level from a specific source (b) (i) to be able to see the effect of exposure (to radon gas) or as a control accept to compare (the effect of) exposure (with no exposure) 2 increased levels of exposure increases the risk (of developing cancer) accept exposure (to radon gas) increases the risk smoking increases the (harmful) effect of radon answers that simply reproduce statistics are insufficient (c) LNT model risk increases with increasing radiation (dose) level accept in (direct) proportion accept low doses increase the risk Radiation hormesis - low radiation (dose) levels reduce the risk Page 26 of 34 (d) two valid points made examples: animals have no choice and so should not be used should not make animals suffer better to experiment on animals than humans experiments lead to a better understanding / new knowledge experiments may lead to health improvement / cures for humans results for animals may not apply to humans is insufficient 2 [0] M5. (a) cosmic rays radon gas (b) (i) Radioactive decay is a random process 9 (iii) 40 accept 59 their (b)(i) correctly calculated (iv) gamma the count stayed the same or gamma does not have a charge accept gamma is an electromagnetic wave (so) gamma is not deflected / affected by the magnetic field accept magnet for magnetic field do not accept is not attracted to the magnet last two marks may be scored for an answer in terms of why it cannot be alpha or beta only answer simply in terms of general properties of gamma are insufficient Page 27 of 34 (c) lead absorbs (some of the) radiation accept radiation cannot pass through (the lead) or less radiation emitted into the (storage) room (d) Should radioactive waste be dumped in the oceans [0] M6. (a) (i) any one from: food / drink rocks / building materials cosmic rays / rays from space accept correctly named example any one from: nuclear power / coal power (stations) accept nuclear waste nuclear accidents accept named accident eg Chernobyl (iii) nuclear weapons testing accept named medical procedure which involves a radioactive source accept radiotherapy nuclear activity / radiation is insufficient do not accept CT scans different number of / fewer protons accept does not have 86 protons accept only has 84 protons or different atomic number do not accept bottom number different reference to mass number negates this mark (b) 68 accept 69 if clear, correct method is shown allow mark for a correct dose ratio involving the spine eg 2:40 etc or ratio of days to dose is.2 or ratio of dose to days is Page 28 of 34 (c) (i) Group A J M O Group B K L N (iii) (iv) all correct any order within each group similar (number) / same (number) / large (number) accept the same specific number in each group eg three reference to other factors such as age is neutral how many people in each group developed cancer a clear comparison is required there are no marks for Yes or No the mark is for the reason Yes the benefit of having the scan is greater than the risk or the risk is (very) small (compared to the chance from natural causes) accept the risk is much greater from natural causes No no additional risk is acceptable [9] M7. (a) neutron discovered (b) neutron electron all 3 in correct order allow mark for
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