Chapter 11. " User-focused activity " Prototyping methodology of iteratively: - PDF

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Modern Systems Analysis and Design Sixth Edition Jeffrey A. Hoffer Joey F. George Joseph S. Valacich Designing Interfaces and Dialogues Learning Objectives! Explain the process of designing interfaces
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Modern Systems Analysis and Design Sixth Edition Jeffrey A. Hoffer Joey F. George Joseph S. Valacich Designing Interfaces and Dialogues Learning Objectives! Explain the process of designing interfaces and dialogues and the deliverables for their creation.! Contrast and apply several methods for interacting with a system.! List and describe various input devices and discuss usability issues for each in relation to performing different tasks.! Describe and apply the general guidelines for designing interfaces and specific guidelines for layout design, structuring data entry fields, providing feedback, and system help. 2 Learning Objectives (Cont.) Designing Interfaces/Dialogues! Design human-computer dialogues and understand how dialogue diagramming can be used to design dialogues.! Design graphical user interfaces.! Discuss guidelines for the design of interfaces and dialogues for Internet-based electronic commerce systems. User-focused activity Prototyping methodology of iteratively: # Collecting information # Constructing a prototype # Assessing usability # Making refinements Must answer the who, what, where, and how questions 3 4 Designing Interfaces and Dialogues (Cont.) FIGURE 11-1 Systems development life cycle (SDLC) Deliverables and Outcomes Creation of a design specification # A typical interface/dialogue design specification is similar to form design, but includes multiple forms and dialogue sequence specifications. # Our exercise is based on RRC s UI Sketch, Storyboard, and UI Flow. 5 6 Deliverables and Outcomes (Cont.) The specification includes: # Narrative overview # Sample design # Testing and usability assessment # Dialogue sequence Dialogue sequence is the ways a user can move from one display to another. Interaction Methods and Devices Interface: a method by which users interact with an information system All human-computer interfaces must: # have an interaction style, and # use some hardware device(s) for supporting this interaction. # use a good combination of ergonomics (efficiency in working environment), aesthetics (pleasing appearance), and interface technology. 7 8 Methods of Interacting Command line # Includes keyboard shortcuts and function keys Menu Form Object-based Natural language Command Language Interaction Command language interaction: a human-computer interaction method whereby users enter explicit statements into a system to invoke operations Example from MS DOS: # COPY C:PAPER.DOC A:PAPER.DOC # Command copies a file from C: drive to A: drive 9 10 Menu Interaction Menu interaction: a human-computer interaction method in which a list of system options is provided and a specific command is invoked by user selection of a menu option Pop-up menu: a menu-positioning method that places a menu near the current cursor position Menu Interaction (Cont.) Drop-down menu is a menu-positioning method that places the access point of the menu near the top line of the display. # When accessed, menus open by dropping down onto the display. # Visual editing tools help designers construct menus Menu Interaction (Cont.) Guidelines for Menu Design # Wording meaningful titles, clear command verbs, mixed upper/lower case # Organization consistent organizing principle # Length all choices fit within screen length # Selection consistent, clear and easy selection methods # Highlighting only for selected options or unavailable options Menu Interaction (Cont.) FIGURE 11-8 Menu building with Microsoft Visual Basic.NET Form Interaction Form Interaction (Cont.) Form interaction: a highly intuitive human-computer interaction method whereby data fields are formatted in a manner similar to paper-based forms # Allows users to fill in the blanks when working with a system. FIGURE 11-9 Example of form interaction from the Google Advanced Search Engine (Source: Google.) 15 16 Object-Based Interaction Object-Based Interaction (Cont.) Object-based interaction: a humancomputer interaction method in which symbols are used to represent commands or functions Icons: graphical pictures that represent specific functions within a system # Use little screen space and are easily understood by users FIGURE Object-based (icon) interface from Microsoft Visual Basic.NET Natural Language Interaction Natural language interaction: a humancomputer interaction method whereby inputs to and outputs from a computer-based application are in a conventional spoken language such as English Based on research in artificial intelligence. Current implementations are tedious and difficult to work with, not as viable as other interaction methods. Principle: User-Centered Design Understand the Business Maximize Graphical Effectiveness Think Like a User Use Models and Prototypes Focus on Usability Invite Feedback Document Everything 19 20 Design a Transparent (easy to perceive) Interface # Facilitate the system design objectives, rather than calling attention to the interface 21 # Create a design that is easy to learn and remember # Design the interface to improve user efficiency and productivity # Write commands, actions, and system responses that are consistent and predictable Create an Interface that Is Easy to Learn and Use # Clearly label all controls, buttons, and icons 22 # Select only those images that users can understand easily, and provide on-screen instructions that are logical, concise, and clear # Show all commands in a list of menu items # Make it easy to navigate Enhance User Productivity 23 # Organize tasks, commands, and functions in groups that resemble actual business operations # Create alphabetical menu lists # Provide shortcuts so experienced users can avoid multiple menu levels # Use default values if the majority of values in a field are the same Make It Easy for Users to Obtain Help or Correct Errors # Ensure that Help is always available 24 # Provide user-selected Help and contextsensitive Help Minimize Input Data Problems 25 # Create input masks # Display event-driven messages and reminders # Establish a list of predefined values that users can click to select # Build in rules that enforce data integrity Provide Feedback to Users 26 # Display messages at a logical place on the screen # Alert users to lengthy processing times or delays # Allow messages to remain on the screen long enough for users to read them # Let the user know whether the task or operation was successful or not Create an Attractive Layout and Design # Use appropriate colors to highlight different areas of the screen 27 # Use special effects sparingly # Use hyperlinks that allow users to jump to related topics # Group related objects and information Use Familiar Terms and Images # Remember that users are accustomed to a pattern of red=stop, yellow=caution, and green=go # Provide a keystroke alternative for each menu command # Use familiar commands if possible # Provide a Windows look and feel in your interface design if users are familiar with Windows-based applications 28 Add Control Features # Menu bar # Toolbar # Command button # Dialog box # Text box # Toggle button Add Control Features # List box scroll bar # Drop-down list box # Option button, or radio button # Check box # Calendar control # Switchboard Designing Form Interfaces Form Layout Design Forms have several general areas in common : # Header information # Sequence and time-related information # Instruction or formatting information # Body or data details # Totals or data summary # Authorization or signatures # Comments Building Forms # Form layout # Heading zone # Control zone # Instruction zone # Body zone # Totals zone # Authorization zone 31 32 Structuring Data Entry Entry Defaults Units Never require data that are already online or that can be computed Always provide default values when appropriate Make clear the type of data units requested for entry Replacement Use character replacement when appropriate Captioning Format Justify Help Always place a caption adjacent to fields Provide formatting examples Automatically justify data entries Provide context-sensitive help when appropriate Controlling Data Input Objective: Reduce data entry errors Common sources data entry errors in a field: # Appending: adding additional characters # Truncating: losing characters # Transcripting: entering invalid data # Transposing: reversing sequence of characters Providing Feedback Three types of system feedback: # Status information: keep user informed of what s going on, helpful when user has to wait for response # Prompting cues: tell user when input is needed, and how to provide the input # Error or warning messages: inform user that something is wrong, either with data entry or system operation Designing Dialogues Dialogues: the sequence of interaction between a user and a system Dialogue design involves: # Designing a dialogue sequence. # Building a prototype. # Assessing usability Designing the Dialogue Sequence Typical dialogue between user and Customer Information System: # Request to view individual customer information. # Specify the customer of interest. # Select the year-to-date transaction summary display. # Review the customer information. # Leave system. Designing the Dialogue Sequence (Cont.) Dialogue diagramming: a formal method for designing and representing humancomputer dialogues using box and line diagrams Designing the Dialogue Sequence (Cont.) Three sections of the box are used as: # Top contains a unique display reference number used by other displays for referencing it. # Middle contains the name or description of the display. # Bottom contains display reference numbers that can be accessed from the current display. Designing the Dialogue Sequence (Cont.) FIGURE Sections of a dialogue diagramming box 39 40 Designing the Dialogue Sequence (Cont.) Dialogue diagrams depict the sequence, conditional branching, and repetition of dialogues. Designing the Dialogue Sequence (Cont.) FIGURE Dialogue diagram illustrating sequence, selection, and iteration Output Design Before designing output, ask yourself several questions: # What is the purpose of the output? 43 # Who wants the information, why is it needed, and how will it be used? # What specific information will be included? # Will the output be printed, viewed on-screen, or both? What type of device will the output go to? Output Design Before designing output, ask yourself several questions: # When will the information be provided, and how often must it be updated? # Do security or confidentiality issues exist? Your answers will affect your output design strategies 44 Output Design (details in next lecture) Overview of Report Design # Few firms have been able to eliminate printed output totally # Turnaround documents # Reports must be easy to read and well organized # Database programs include a variety of report design tools # Character-based reports Summary In this chapter you learned how to:! Explain the process of designing interfaces and dialogues and the deliverables for their creation.! Contrast and apply several methods for interacting with a system.! List and describe various input devices and discuss usability issues for each in relation to performing different tasks.! Describe and apply the general guidelines for designing interfaces and specific guidelines for layout design, structuring data entry fields, providing feedback, and system help Summary (Cont.)! Design human-computer dialogues and understand how dialogue diagramming can be used to design dialogues.! Design graphical user interfaces.! Discuss guidelines for the design of interfaces and dialogues for Internet-based electronic commerce systems. 47
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