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Exampro GCSE Physics P2 Foundation - Forces and their effects Self Study Questions Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 25 Marks: 25 Comments: Page of 44 Q. (a) Figure shows the horizontal forces acting on

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Exampro GCSE Physics P2 Foundation - Forces and their effects Self Study Questions Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 25 Marks: 25 Comments: Page of 44 Q. (a) Figure shows the horizontal forces acting on a moving bicycle and cyclist. Figure (i) What causes force A? Draw a ring around the correct answer. friction gravity weight () What causes force B? () Page 2 of 44 (iii) In this question you will be assessed on using good English, organising information clearly and using specialist terms where appropriate. Figure 2 shows how the velocity of the cyclist changes during the first part of a journey along a straight and level road. During this part of the journey the force applied by the cyclist to the bicycle pedals is constant. Figure 2 Time Describe how and explain, in terms of the forces A and B, why the velocity of the cyclist changes: between the points X and Y and between the points Y and Z, marked on the graph in Figure 2. Extra space... Page 3 of 44 (6) (b) (i) The cyclist used the brakes to slow down and stop the bicycle. A constant braking force of 40 N stopped the bicycle in a distance of 24 m. Calculate the work done by the braking force to stop the bicycle. Give the unit. Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet. Work done =... (3) Complete the following sentences. When the brakes are used, the bicycle slows down. The kinetic energy of the bicycle.... At the same time, the... of the brakes increases. (Total 3 marks) Page 4 of 44 Q2. (a) Figure shows the distance time graph for a person walking to a bus stop. Figure Time in seconds (i) Which one of the following statements describes the motion of the person between points R and S on the graph? Tick ( ) one box. Not moving Moving at constant speed Moving with increasing speed () Another person, walking at constant speed, travels the same distance to the bus stop in 200 seconds. Complete Figure 2 to show a distance time graph for this person. Figure 2 Time in seconds () Page 5 of 44 (b) A bus accelerates away from the bus stop at 2.5 m/s 2. The total mass of the bus and passengers is kg. Calculate the resultant force needed to accelerate the bus and passengers. Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet Resultant force =... N (Total 4 marks) Q3. The diagram shows a boat pulling a water skier. (a) The arrow represents the force on the water produced by the engine propeller. This force causes the boat to move. Explain why (b) The boat accelerates at a constant rate in a straight line. This causes the velocity of the water skier to increase from 4.0 m/s to 6.0 m/s in 8.0 seconds. (i) Calculate the acceleration of the water skier and give the unit. Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet. Acceleration =... (3) Page 6 of 44 The water skier has a mass of 68 kg. Calculate the resultant force acting on the water skier while accelerating. Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet. Resultant force =... N (iii) Draw a ring around the correct answer to complete the sentence. The force from the boat pulling the water skier forwards less than will be the same as the answer to part (b). greater than Give the reason for your answer. (Total 9 marks) Q4. A car and a bicycle are travelling along a straight road. They have stopped at road works. Page 7 of 44 The graph shows how the velocity of the car changes after the sign is changed to GO. (a) Between which two points on the graph is the car moving at constant velocity?... () (b) Between which two points on the graph is the car accelerating?... () (c) Between the sign changing to GO and the car starting to move, there is a time delay. This is called the reaction time. (i) What is the reaction time of the car driver? Reaction time =... seconds () Which one of the following could increase the reaction time of a car driver? Tick the box next to your choice. Drinking alcohol Wet roads Worn car brakes () Page 8 of 44 (d) The cyclist starts to move at the same time as the car. For the first 2 seconds the cyclist s acceleration is constant and is greater than that of the car. Draw a line on the graph to show how the velocity of the cyclist might change during the first 2 seconds of its motion. (Total 6 marks) Q5. A car has an oil leak. Every 5 seconds an oil drop falls from the bottom of the car onto the road. (a) What force causes the oil drop to fall towards the road?... () (b) The diagram shows the spacing of the oil drops left on the road during part of a journey Describe the motion of the car as it moves from A to B.... Explain the reason for your answer (3) (c) When the brakes are applied, a braking force slows down and stops the car. (i) The size of the braking force affects the braking distance of the car. State one other factor that affects the braking distance of the car. () Page 9 of 44 A braking force of 3 kn is used to slow down and stop the car in a distance of 25 m. Calculate the work done by the brakes to stop the car and give the unit. Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet. Work done =... (3) (Total 8 marks) Q6. A horse and rider take part in a long distance race. The graph shows how far the horse and rider travel during the race. (a) What was the distance of the race? distance =... km () (b) How long did it take the horse and rider to complete the race?... () (c) What distance did the horse and rider travel in the first 2 hours of the race? distance =... km () (d) How long did the horse and rider stop and rest during the race?... () Page 0 of 44 (e) Not counting the time it was resting, between which two points was the horse moving the slowest?... and... Give a reason for your answer (Total 6 marks) Q7. The diagram shows the passenger train on part of a rollercoaster ride. (a) Which arrow shows the direction of the resultant force acting on the passenger train? Put a tick ( ) in the box next to your choice. () (b) For part of the ride, the maximum gravitational field strength acting on the passengers seems 3 times bigger than normal. Normal gravitational field strength = 0 N/kg (i) Calculate the maximum gravitational field strength that seems to act on the passengers during the ride. Maximum gravitational field strength =... N/kg () Page of 44 One of the passengers has a mass of 75 kg. Use the equation in the box to calculate the maximum weight this passenger seems to have during the ride. weight = mass gravitational field strength Show clearly how you work out your answer. Maximum weight =... N (Total 4 marks) Q8. The diagram shows how the thinking distance and braking distance of a car add together to give the stopping distance of the car. (a) Use words from the box to complete the sentence. distance energy force time The stopping distance is found by adding the distance the car travels during the driver s reaction... and the distance the car travels under the braking.... (b) Which one of the following would not increase the thinking distance? Tick ( ) one box. The car driver being tired. The car tyres being badly worn. The car being driven faster. () Page 2 of 44 (c) The graph shows how the braking distance of a car changes with the speed of the car. The force applied to the car brakes does not change. Speed in metres/second (i) What conclusion about braking distance can be made from the graph? The graph is for a car driven on a dry road. Draw a line on the graph to show what is likely to happen to the braking distance at different speeds if the same car was driven on an icy road. () (d) A local council has reduced the speed limit from 30 miles per hour to 20 miles per hour on a few roads. The reason for reducing the speed limit was to reduce the number of accidents. (i) A local newspaper reported that a councillor said: It will be much safer because drivers can react much faster when driving at 20 miles per hour than when driving at 30 miles per hour. This statement is wrong. Why? () Page 3 of 44 The local council must decide whether to introduce the lower speed limit on a lot more roads. What evidence should the local council collect to help make this decision? (Total 9 marks) Q9. (a) A car is being driven along a straight road. The diagrams, A, B and C, show the horizontal forces acting on the moving car at three different points along the road. Describe the motion of the car at each of the points, A, B and C. (3) (b) The diagram below shows the stopping distance for a family car, in good condition, driven at 22 m/s on a dry road. The stopping distance has two parts. (i) Complete the diagram below by adding an appropriate label to the second part of the stopping distance () Page 4 of 44 State one factor that changes both the first part and the second part of the stopping distance. () (c) The front crumple zone of a car is tested at a road traffic laboratory. This is done by using a remote control device to drive the car into a strong barrier. Electronic sensors are attached to the dummy inside the car. (i) At the point of collision, the car exerts a force of 5000 N on the barrier. State the size and direction of the force exerted by the barrier on the car. () Suggest why the dummy is fitted with electronic sensors. () Page 5 of 44 (iii) The graph shows how the velocity of the car changes during the test. Use the graph to calculate the acceleration of the car just before the collision with the barrier. Show clearly how you work out your answer, including how you use the graph, and give the unit. Acceleration =... (3) (Total 0 marks) Page 6 of 44 Q0. (a) The diagram shows two forces acting on an object. What is the resultant force acting on the object? Tick ( ) one box. 8 N to the right 8 N to the left 4 N to the right 4 N to the left () Page 7 of 44 (b) BASE jumpers jump from very high buildings and mountains for sport. The diagram shows the forces acting on a BASE jumper in flight. The BASE jumper is wearing a wingsuit. (i) Draw a ring around the correct answer in the box to complete each sentence. smaller than The BASE jumper accelerates forwards when force A is equal to force B. bigger than smaller than The BASE jumper falls with a constant speed when force C is equal to force D. bigger than Page 8 of 44 To land safely the BASE jumper opens a parachute. What effect does opening the parachute have on the speed of the falling BASE jumper? Give a reason for your answer. (Total 5 marks) Q. A student investigated how the extension of a spring depends on the force applied to the spring. The diagram shows the spring before and after a force had been applied. (a) (i) Complete the following sentence using letters, A, B, C or D, from the diagram. The extension of the spring is the distance between the positions labelled...and... on the metre rule. () Page 9 of 44 What form of energy is stored in the stretched spring? () (b) The results from the investigation are plotted on the following graph. (i) The graph shows that the student has made an error throughout the investigation. What error has the student made? Give the reason for your answer. Page 20 of 44 The student has loaded the spring beyond its limit of proportionality. Mark on the graph line the limit of proportionality of the spring. Label the point P. Give the reason for choosing your point P. (c) The student uses a different spring as a spring balance. When the student hangs a stone from this spring, its extension is 72 mm. The spring does not go past the limit of proportionality. Calculate the force exerted by the stone on the spring. spring constant = 25 N/m Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet. Show clearly how you work out your answer Force =... N (Total 8 marks) Q2. Some students designed and built an electric-powered go-kart. The go-kart is shown below. (a) Suggest two changes that could be made to the design of the go-kart to increase its top speed Page 2 of 44 (b) A go-kart with a new design is entered into a race. The velocity-time graph for the go-kart, during the first 40 seconds of the race, is shown below. Time in seconds (i) Between which two points did the go-kart have the greatest acceleration? Tick ( ) one box. A B B C C D Give a reason for your answer. The go-kart travels at a speed of 3 m/s between points D and E. The total mass of the go-kart and driver is 40 kg. Calculate the momentum of the go-kart and driver between points D and E. Use the correct equation from the Physics Equations Sheet. Momentum =... kg m/s (Total 6 marks) Page 22 of 44 Q3. (a) A person takes their dog for a walk. The graph shows how the distance from their home changes with time. Which part of the graph, A, B, C or D, shows them walking the fastest? Write your answer in the box. Give the reason for your answer (b) During the walk, both the speed and the velocity of the person and the dog change. How is velocity different from speed? () (Total 3 marks) Page 23 of 44 Q4. The diagram, which is not to scale, shows two satellites, L and M, orbiting the Earth. (a) Complete the following table. Each letter, L or M, may be used once, more than once, or not at all. Statement about the satellite Letter for the satellite It is used as a monitoring satellite. It is a geostationary satellite. It takes 24 hours to complete its orbit. (b) Complete the following sentence. To stay in its present orbit around the Earth, each satellite must move at a particular.... () Page 24 of 44 (c) Thousands of satellites are now in orbit around the Earth. A student used the internet to collect information about some of them. Name of satellite Average distance from the centre of the Earth in kilometres Speed in kilometres per second Time taken to orbit the Earth The Moon days GEO day Navstar hours Lageos hours HST mins ISS mins (i) The Moon takes a longer time than any of the other satellites to orbit the Earth. Give one other way in which the Moon is different from the other satellites in the table. () What conclusion on the relationship between the average distance and speed can the student come to on the basis of this data? () (Total 5 marks) Page 25 of 44 Q5. The diagram shows the forces acting on a car. The car is being driven along a straight, level road at a constant speed of 2 m/s. (a) The driver then accelerates the car to 23 m/s in 4 seconds. Use the equation in the box to calculate the acceleration of the car. Show clearly how you work out your answer and give the unit Acceleration =... (3) (b) Describe how the horizontal forces acting on the car change during the first two seconds of the acceleration (3) (Total 6 marks) Page 26 of 44 Q6. A high-speed train accelerates at a constant rate in a straight line. The velocity of the train increases from 30 m/s to 42 m/s in 60 seconds. (a) (i) Calculate the change in the velocity of the train. Change in velocity =... m/s () Use the equation in the box to calculate the acceleration of the train. Show clearly how you work out your answer and give the unit. Choose the unit from the list below. m/s m/s 2 N/kg Nm Acceleration =... (b) Which one of the graphs, A, B or C, shows how the velocity of the train changes as it accelerates? Write your answer, A, B or C, in the box. A B C Graph () (Total 4 marks) Page 27 of 44 Q7. (a) The diagram shows the horizontal forces acting on a swimmer. (i) The swimmer is moving at constant speed. Force T is 20 N. What is the size of force D?... N () By increasing force T to 40 N, the swimmer accelerates to a higher speed. Calculate the size of the initial resultant force acting on the swimmer. Initial resultant force =... N () (iii) Even though the swimmer keeps the force T constant at 40 N, the resultant force on the swimmer decreases to zero. Explain why. (3) Page 28 of 44 (b) A sports scientist investigated how the force exerted by a swimmer s hands against the water affects the swimmer s speed. The investigation involved 20 males and 20 females swimming a fixed distance. Sensors placed on each swimmer s hands measured the force 85 times every second over the last 0 metres of the swim. The measurements were used to calculate an average force. The average speed of each swimmer over the last 0 metres of the swim was also measured. The data from the investigation is displayed in the graph. (i) What was the dependent variable in this investigation? () Explain one advantage of measuring the force 85 times every second rather than just once or twice every second. (iii) Give one way in which the data for the male swimmers is different from the data for the female swimmers. () Page 29 of 44 (iv) Considering only the data from this investigation, what advice should a swimming coach give to swimmers who want to increase their average speed? () (Total 0 marks) Q8. (a) (i) The diagram shows three vehicles travelling along a straight road at 4 m/s. Which vehicle has the greatest momentum?... Give the reason for your answer. Use the equation in the box to calculate the momentum of the motorbike when it travels at 4 m/s. momentum = mass velocity Show clearly how you work out your answer. Momentum =...kg m/s Page 30 of 44 (b) The motorbike follows the lorry for a short time, and then accelerates to overtake both the lorry and van. (i) Complete the following sentence by drawing a ring around the correct line in the box. When the motorbike starts to overtake, the kinetic energy decreases. of the motorbike stays the same. increases. () Give a reason for your answer to part (b)(i). () (iii) The graph shows the velocity of the motorbike up to the time when it starts to accelerate. The motorbike accelerates constantly, going from a speed of 4 m/s to a speed of 20 m/s in a time of 2 seconds. The motorbike then stays at 20 m/s. Complete the graph to show the motion of the motorbike over the next 4 seconds. (3) (Total 9 marks) Page 3 of 44 M. (a) (i) friction (iii) air resistance accept drag friction is insufficient Marks awarded for this answer will be determined by the Quality of Written Communication (QWC) as well as the standard of the scientific response. Examiners should also refer to the information on page 5, and apply a best-fit approach to the marking. 0 marks No relevant content. Level ( 2 marks) There is an attempt to explain in terms of forces A and B why the velocity of the cyclist changes between any two points or a description of how the velocity changes between any two points. Level 2 (3 4 marks) There is an explanation in terms of forces A and B of how the velocity changes between X and Y and between Y and Z or a complete description of how the velocity changes from X to Z. or an explanation and description of velocity change for either X to Y or Y to Z Level 3 (5 6 marks) There is a clear explanation in terms of forces A and B of how the velocity changes between X and Z and a description of the change in velocity between X and Z. examples of the points made in the response extra information X to Y at X force A is greater than force B cyclist accelerates and velocity increases as cyclist moves toward Y, force B (air resistance) increases (with increasing velocity) resultant force decreases cyclist continues to accelerate but at a smaller value so velocity continues to increase but at a lower rate Y to Z from Y to Z force B (air resistance) increases acceleration decreases force B becomes equal to force A resultant force is now zero acceleration becomes zero velocity increases until cyclist travels at constant / terminal velocity accept speed for velocity throughout 6 (b) (i) 3360 Page 32 of 44 allow mark for correct substitution, ie provided no subsequent step accept 3400 for 2 marks if correct substitution is shown joule / J do not accept j do not accept Nm decreases accept an alternative word / description for decrease do not accept slows down 2 temperature accept thermal energy accept heat [3] M2. (a) (i) not moving straight line from origin to (200,500) ignore a horizontal line after (200,500) (b) allow mark for correct substitution, ie provided no subsequent step an answer of indicates acceleration (2.5) has

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