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UNIVERSITY OF SURREY and CANTERBURY CHRIST CHURCH UNIVERSITY PSYCHD IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY SELECTION WRITTEN TEST QUESTION PAPER CANDIDATE INSTRUCTIONS There are TWO parts to this test: Part 1 (which has two sections A & B) and Part 2 Candidates have 45 MINUTES to complete the test Candidates should answer the questions in PART 1- SECTION A first and are advised that they should do as best as they can on these questions before moving on to the rest of the test All answers MUST be written in the answer booklet provided Loose sheets of paper are provided for notes. They will be collected at the end of the test but will NOT be marked Candidates are permitted to make notes on this test paper. It will be collected at the end of the test but will NOT be marked WHEN THE INVIGILATOR INSTRUCTS YOU TO DO SO, TURN THE PAGE 1 PART 1: SCIENTIST-PRACTITIONER THINKING This part of the test assesses your ability to think critically about research designs that may be used by applied psychologists to investigate practice-based care questions. There are 20 marks available on this part of the test. Part 1is divided into two sections: SECTION A (worth 10 marks) and SECTION B (worth 10 marks). Please ensure you answer the questions in SECTION A first. Part 1 - SECTION A Read the Abstract below and then answer the questions for Part 1- SECTION A in your answer booklet. Abstract Background: In November 2011, the Care Quality Commission reported that too many hospitals in England were failing to give basic care to the elderly. Of particular concern was the failure of staff to meet the basic hygiene needs of elderly patients. The government and the public called for a review of elderly care training and standards in hospitals in England. The current study used the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to understand the attitudes and beliefs of care students to helping elderly patients in need. The TPB proposes three factors predict a person s intention to help: (1) the person s attitude towards helping, (2) the extent to which the person perceives that significant others (e.g. friends, family) would expect them to help, and (3) the extent to which the person believes they have the ability to help the person in need. Also measured was the extent to which care students felt they would regret not helping an elderly person who needed help. Method: An opportunity sample of 70 undergraduate nursing students (58 female, 12 male) with a mean age of (SD 2.81) from a University in the South of England participated. Participants read a vignette (a short story) describing a fictitious elderly female hospital patient who was asking for help with going to the bathroom. Participants then completed questions measuring their intention to help the patient if they were in the situation described, the three TPB factors, and their anticipated regret if they did not help. Results: Regression analysis showed that the variables measured in this study explained 58% of the variability in intention to help. Attitude towards helping, perceived ability to help and regret at not helping were all significant predictors of intention to help. QUESTIONS: PART 1 SECTION A Question (a): Give one advantage and one disadvantage of using a vignette in this research. [2 Question (b): Correlations between intention to help and the other variables were as follows: attitude towards helping r=.53 (p .001), perceived ability to help r=.63 (p .001), and regret at not helping r=.41 (p=.005). Which variable has the strongest correlation with intention to help and what does the correlation tell you about the nature of the relationship between these two variables? You must give both parts of the answer in order to score the mark. [1 mark] 2 Question (c): How much variability in intention to help was not explained by the variables in this study? [1 mark] Question (d): State one variable not measured in this study that you think might predict intention to help and explain why you think this variable would predict it. You must give both parts of the answer in order to score the mark. [1 mark] Question (e): List five different reasons why the findings from this study cannot be generalised to all cases of poor care in hospitals in England. [5 Part 1 - SECTION B Read the study description below and then answer the questions for Part 1- SECTION B in your answer booklet. Study Description Researchers have found that intention to perform a particular behaviour does not necessarily result in the actual behaviour occurring. This is known as the intention-behaviour gap. A group of researchers conducted a study to assess the extent to which intention to adhere to clinical guidelines regarding the provision of hygiene care to elderly patients is related to actual adherence in nurses. They recruited a volunteer sample of 20 nurses. Nurses intention to adhere to clinical guidelines was measured using a single percentage scale ranging from 0 (no intention to adhere to the guidelines) to 100 (intention to adhere to the guidelines completely). Nurses attitude towards the clinical guidelines were also measured using a single Likert-type scale ranging from 0 (do not agree with the content of the guidelines at all) to 7 (agree completely with the content of the guidelines). Two weeks later, the researchers measured adherence by using structured observation of the nurses behaviour on the ward. Each nurse was observed by a single rater who assessed them on the extent to which they met 6 specific guidelines for hygiene care with every patient between 11am and 2pm on three consecutive days. The rating scale was two-point: the guideline was met or was not met. QUESTIONS: PART 1 SECTION B Question (a): Why do you think the researchers measured nurses attitude towards the guidelines? [2 Question (b): Give one limitation of measuring adherence two weeks after measuring intention [1 mark] Question (c): If you were doing this study, how would you maximise the reliability of the measurement of adherence? [2 Question (d): What is one design weakness of observing nurses between 11am and 2pm each day? What would you propose as an alternative and specifically why would this be an improvement? [3 Question (e): Give two separate dimensions upon which volunteer nurses might differ from nurses who do not volunteer to take part that would be relevant to the meaning that could be made of the findings of this study [2 3 PART 2: DATA INTERPRETATION AND WRITTEN COMMUNICATION This part of the test assesses your ability to extract and interpret information and summarise it in an appropriate written form. You will be marked on presentation as well as content. Please ensure your writing can be read. Read the Description of data below and then write your answer in Part 2 of your answer booklet following the instructions given in the answer booklet. There are 10 marks available on this part of the test. Description of data The senior management of an NHS mental trust is considering whether to invest in video conferencing (VC) technology. The mental trust covers a wide geographical area and clinical staff members sometimes have to travel between 30 and 60 minutes to attend staff. The managers hope that introducing VC technology will reduce the need for their staff to travel and so increase the time staff can spend on clinical work. To help their decision-making, the managers have asked you to review the literature on the effectiveness of VC and then provide some summaries of this. You conduct a literature search and find three relevant papers. The main results of these papers are presented in the table below. You should use the information in this table to complete the tasks provided in Part 2 of your answer booklet. When considering the data in the table, it would be best to give consideration to the implications of the design and sample used in each study. Study Participan ts 1 10 mental clinicians 2 50 physical teams per group 3 50 mental teams per group Design Baseline then intervention Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) RCT Intervention Group Control Group Results: average staff attendance - Before VC = 65% Remote staff attend in person Remote staff attend in person With VC = 80% p=.25 90% Control = 87% p=.55 79% Control = 64% p=.02 Results: percentage of staff satisfied with Before VC = 50% With VC =80% p=.15 81% Control =80%; p=.91 83% Control =56% p=.04 4 PART 2: WRITTEN SUMMARIES There are two written summary tasks to complete. Task 1: Write a summary of the findings in the table concerning the impact of using video conferencing to help remote staff. The summary should focus on providing interpretation and synthesis of the findings, a recommendation to the trust management and a brief rationale for this recommendation. Re-statement of the findings without interpretation will not be awarded marks. You may assume that the readers of this summary can understand common academic/scientific language. You should write in prose and not note form. [7 Task 2 The senior management of the trust also wants you to provide information to an adult serviceusers group to support a consultation process. Therefore, you need to write a new version of your response to Task 1 that covers the same content but uses language that will be accessible to NHS adult mental service-users. You should write in prose and not note form. [3 5
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